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85 Cards in this Set

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Excuse for slavery by the South.

Idea that blacks are socially inferior, like children, and must be taken care of.

Slaveowners are only doing their "Christian duty" and taking care of them, like fathers.

Slaves are happy and care-free, since their needs are taken care of.

Lost Cause Ideology

The Lost Cause, 1866, Edward Pollard

The Union won only because of their overwhelming numbers and industrial advantageThe war was primarily about states’ rights, not slavery.

Slavery wasn’t really that bad.

The war destroyed a romanticized, superior “southern way of life”

Black Codes

Special rules for freed blacks. Basically slavery, with exception of being sold.


Derogatory term for Northern Republicans who moved South after Civil War. Had come to "take over the South"


Derogatory term for Southern Republicans and Northern sympathizers. i.e. traitors

The Birth of A Nation

Controversial 1915 silent film by D.W. Griffith.

First “blockbuster” Hollywood hit

About the South, during and after the Civil War, with much racism and positive portrayal of the KuKlux Klan (KKK).

Represented African-Americans as hostile and sexually aggressive toward white women.

Based on the novel The Clansman.

Led to a second rise of the KKK.

The Great Compromise of 1876

Also known as the "Corrupt Bargain" or the "Great Betrayal"

marked the end of Reconstruction in the South and a return to "Home Rule".

Settled the disputed 1876 U.S. Presidential election.

Allies of the Republican Party candidate Rutherford Hayes met in secret withmoderate southern Democrats in order to negotiate acceptance of Hayes’ election. The Democrats agreednot to block Hayes’ victory on the condition that Republicans withdraw all federal troops from the South,thus consolidating Democratic control over the region.

Free Labor Ideology

Stated that free labor is the basis of democracy and everyone should have anequal opportunity to profit from their labor.

Grounded in the belief that Northern free labor was superiorto Southern slave labor.

Free labor offered any wage earner the opportunity to rise to property owningindependence.

The Gilded Age

1870s - 1890s.

gilded = gold plated (looks golden, but not really gold.)

Huge fortunes made (first time of millionaires)

From the title of 1873 novel by Mark Twain andCharles Dudley Warner - family from TN trying to make there way through politics and making money. Making fun of the idea that you want people to know you’re successfully and making a lot of money.

“Get rich, dishonestly if we can, honestly if we must.” - The Gilded Age

Elements of Gilded Age

Industrialization (2nd Industrial Revolution)

Economic growth



Labor Unions

2nd Industrial Revolution

The first transcontinental railroad opened in 1869 - Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads met Promontory Summit, Utah. You could now cross the country in 6-8 days.

Affects: Cattle industry, Agriculture, Manufacturing, Mining, Western Migration.

The Ghost Dance

Native American Spiritual movement.

Wovoka: Northern Paiute spiritual leader (gods are mad at us and that’s why white people are oppressing us. If we stop being like white people, the gods will lead them away into the ocean. The Ghost Dance was started for this purpose. (spiritual movement)

Dec. 15 1890: Death of Sitting Bull - after time with Buffalo Bill, decides to join his tribe again. Gets involved with movement. Indian police capture him and try to get him to stop. Sitting Bull refused and was killed

Sitting Bull

Lakota spiritual leader

Resisting Whiteencroachment on his people's hunting grounds, he led the Sioux tribes against the US Army in the SiouxWar (1876–77) and against settlers in the northern Great Plains.

Dec. 15 1890: Death of Sitting Bull - after time with Buffalo Bill, decides to join his tribe again. Gets involved with movement. Indian police capture him and try to get him to stop. Sitting Bull refused and was killed.

Dawes Act of 1887

One of the attempts to Americanize Indians.

Also known as the General Allotment Act or the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887

Authorized the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians.

Frederick Jackson Turner


1893 - The Frontier Thesis, his paper, (turned into a book) that was his theory on America’s ideas.

the argument that expansion and the American frontier formed the Americandemocracy.

The distinctiveness of the United States was attributable to its long history of “westering.”

Robber Barons

Term applied to a businessman in the 19th century who engaged in unethical and monopolistic practices, wielded widespread political influence, and amassed enormous wealth.

“Rich Uncle Pennybags” (name of guy on Monopoly game) encouraged Monopoly (1904-1924)

“Robin Hood” figures like Jesse James (not a nice guy) were celebrated for robbing banks and trains

L. Frank Baum

Author of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.

Journalist in the West in 1890s.

Prejudiced against indians (along with Mark Twain)

Social Darwinism

Evolutionary progress through the natural conflicts between social groups.

- The best adapted and most successful social groups survive these conflicts, raising the evolutionary level of society generally (the survival of the fittest)

- Class division is natural and good. Those who fail (are poor,etc) are unfit.Wealthy industrialists argue that their large charitable donations help society.

The Walking City

Ended with urbanization.

"Walking city" - City is not so big, and concentrated enough, that you could walk across the city in a day.

Old Immigrants

Mid-19th century, most from Northern or Western Europe

Significant portion were literate orskilled in some trade.

Irish had problems (they were catholic)

Jacob Riis

May 3, 1849 – May 26, 1914

Danish-American social reformer, "muckraking" journalist and social documentary photographer. Attempted to alleviate the bad living conditions of poor people by exposing their living conditions to the middle and upper classes.

Known for using his photographic and journalistic talents to help the impoverished in New York City - the subject of most of his prolific writings and photography.

Endorsed the implementation of "model tenements" in New York with the help of humanitarian Lawrence Veller.

One of the most famous proponents of the newly practicable casual photography.

Considered one of the fathers of photography due to his very early adoption of flash in photography.

New York: Riis experienced poverty, became a police reporter writing about the quality of life in the slums.


Word used to describe two groups of Europeans (Bohemian (Czech) and Hungarians)

later turned into “honky”: the derogatory term for whites by African Americans

Frederick Winslow Taylor

Lived from 1856-1915.

First management consultant

Turned down help from father and instead went out into the factory workforce to understand how it works.

Came up with “Scientific Management” or “Taylorism” based on what he saw in factories and how to make factories more productive. Tried to get rid of “soldiering”, “goldbricking,” or “loafing”.


Knowledge and control must rest with management, not labor.

Time and motion must be used efficiently

Enforced standardization

4 principles: 1) No more “rule of thumb,” use scientific principles.

2) Scientifically train workers. Don’t letthem train themselves.

3) Provide detailed and specific instructions.

4) Managers plan, workers work.

Albert Parsons

Confederate veteran who supported Reconstruction.

Married Lucy Gonzales (multi racial) in 1871, moves to Chicago worked for Chicago Times. Became socialist 1874.

Cofounded 1st Chicago branch of Knights of Labor 1876, gave stirring speech and got fired. 1880 - becomes anarchist “political laws violate natural laws.” - call for no govt.

Part of Haymarket Affair.

Haymarket Affair

May 4 - Peaceful protest Chicago police brutality on May Day Strike on May 3rd organized at Haymarket Square, Chicago

Rain begins - Albert Parsons (and family) go home

Bomb goes off.Organizes of rally and prominent anarchists arrested for conspiracy: 8 in all.

Of 8: 1 man sentenced to 15 yrs. 7 sentenced to death - 1 committed suicide, 2 commuted to life, other 4 hanged. Global outrage.

3 survivors had their sentences commuted in 1893 and memorial erected for martyrs.


Populism is a doctrine that appeals to the interests and conceptions (such as hopes and fears) of the general population, especially when contrasting any new collective consciousness push against the prevailing status quo interests of any predominant political sector.

Ocala Demands

1890 - Abolition of national bankslow interest federal loans for farmers lower tariffs

Unlimited silver coinage (put more money in circulation)

Transportation communication regulations

Graduated income tax (also known as progressive tax)

Direct election of senators (vote representatives, no say in senators, legislator votes for senators)

Graduated Income Tax

Also known as progressive tax

Taxes based on income, instead of one flat rate.

Those who make more pay more taxes.

William Jennings Bryan



Democratic presidential candidate


Secretary of State for Woodrow Wilson (1913-1915) resigned position to protest moral imperialism

Supported free silver.

Alfred Thayer Mahan

US Navy Rear Admiral

"the mostimportant American strategist of the nineteenth century."

The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1890

- “manifest destiny through naval imperialism” Globals powers are powers because of their navy.

For US to become a power, they would need to grow their naval forces.

Shaped thestrategic thought of navies across the world.

William Randolph Hearst

Owned several newspapers in US. Called for US involvement in Spanish war.

Started “yellow journalism”.

Helped whip up publichostility against Spain (leading to the Spanish­-American War)

Philippine Insurrection

Also known as Philippine-American War.

The conflict arose when First Philippine Republic objected to the terms of the Treaty of Paris under which the United States took possession of the Philippines from Spain after the end of the Spanish–American War.

The war was a continuation of the Philippine struggle for independence that began in 1896 with the Philippine Revolution.

Emilio Aquinaldo

- Philippine guerrilla leader in warfare against Spain.

Elected president after Philippines win war and gain independence.

-Continued to lead Guerrilla fighting with Philippines against US allies during Philippine Insurrection.

Tom Watson

A Populist leader who at first had an egalitarian, agrarian agenda and encouraged black and white farmers/workers to cooperate in the South Then became a Southern Democrat and a force for white supremacy and anti­Catholicism.

Willian Jennings Bryan’s VP candidate in 1896;

Populist Party presidential candidate in 1904

1908 returns to Democrats,

Becomes Democratic Senator

Famous for racist ideas, especially against blacks and Jews.


Freedpeople who migrated from Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas, up the Mississippi river to Kansas

Plessy v. Ferguson

1892, Louisiana. 14th amendment.

Homer Plessy (1/8 black) got on white street car (Louisiana passed law that blacks and whites could not mingle on streetcars.)

Got arrested and went to supreme court to get this law overruled. Court ruled that segregation is not a violation of civil rights as long as there were equal, separate opportunities. “Separate, but Equal.” -

Supreme Court ruling set this precedence for nation.

Beginning of "Jim Crow" Era

Jim Crow Era

Plessy v. Ferguson started it.

De facto = in reality

De jure = by law

“Jim Crow” was a minstrel character.

Ida Wells

African American journalist, newspaper editor, suffragist, sociologist, and an early leaderin the Civil Rights movement.

Conducted a self­described crusade for justice to protest the savagelynchings of hundreds of African Americans in the South.

Called for federal law for lynching (current lynching laws were local laws).

Eventually moved to Chicago.

Booker T. Washington

Opposed W E B Du Bois views.

Born a slave in South before Civil War

Head of Tuskegee Institute taught teachers, taught vocational skills

Wrote: Up From Slavery

First African American to be invited to have dinner at the White House Senator

Ben Tillman of SC said: "we’ll have to kill a thousand to put them back in their place"

Gave: Atlanta Cotton Exposition Speech, 1895

Adjust to segerataion, don’t agitate for civil right. Build up your own communities instead.

Train for farm and factory jobs, not higher ed. Seek help of white employers who are tired of dealing with white union workers

“Separate fingers, one hand”

W E B Du Bois

Opposed Booker T. Washington's views.

Born free in Massachusetts.

Later cofounder NAACP (1909, with Ida Wells)

College at Fisk, schoolteacher in Dekalb County, TN.

Got Phd in sociology

“Talented tenth”

The Soul Of Black Folk, 1903

Black Reconstruction, 1935


Journalist and writers who brought to light corruption in politics and corporations.

Muckrakers: Jacob Riis, Upton Sinclair, Ida Tarbell

Upton Sinclair


The Jungle, about meat-packing.

Wrote many exposes on the guilded age and unregulated capitalism.

Tried to expose terrible conditions of workers. Also wrote Oil!

Jane Addams

Founds Hull House, Chicago 1897

“settlement houses”: houses that held immigrants to help them learn english, get papers, and just get on their feet in America.

The Wobblies

A popular name for members of Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), an internationallabor union and radical labor movement dedicated to the overthrow of capitalism.

Est.1905 Founders:

Big Bill Haywood

Lucy Parsons (Wife of Albert Parsons)

Eugene Debs

“Mother” Mary Jones: Briefly imprisoned in her 70s for her activities with striking Colorado coal miners

Eugene Debs

Founder of IWW "The Wobblies"

American Union leader.

Socialist Party presidential candidate 5 times.

The Ludlow Massacre

110 Colorado coal miners died in 1913 alone from accidents

1200 striking miners and families build "tent city"

Tent city attacked by the Colorado National Guard and Colorado Fuel & Iron Company campguards (under the command of the Rockefeller family) on April 20, 1914.

No National Guardsmen was ever prosecuted over thekillings.

The Bully Pulpit

C oined by President T heodore Roosevelt, who referred to the White House as a "bullypulpit", by which he meant a terrific platform from which to advocate an agenda.

Bully: used by upper class, for something really good

The Bull Moose Party

1912 Election - all progressive candidates

Roosevelt didn’t win republican nomination, formed new party- the Progressive party.

Campaign finance reform

Registration of lobbyist

Political primaries

Minimum wage for women

Women’s suffrage

Social insurance

Limited injunctions for strikes

Workers’ Comp

Inheritance tax

Income tax

Direct election of senators

Two battleships built per year.

New Nationalism

Teddy Roosevelt's idea

A strong governments to:

Regulate industry

Protect the middle and working classes

Carry on great national projects.

New Freedom

Created by Woodrow Wilson.

Opposed monopolies but called for less severe relations than Roosevelt. “If america is not to have free enterprise, he can have freedom of no sort whatever”

Small businesses must be protected

WW distrusted both Big Government and Big Business; said big corporations were as likely to corrupt government as be managed by it.

1914 Clayton Antitrust Act

1914: Excluded unions from antitrust laws and barred injunctions (when judgecan get involved and declare that a strike is illegal).

An amendment meant to further promote competitionin U.S. businesses and discourage the formation of monopolies.

Legalized peaceful strikes.

1916 Keating-Owen Act

1916: The act forbade the transportation among states of products (interstate goods) offactories, shops or canneries employing children.

Imposed restrictions on child labor.

Bans child labor for interstate goods.

The Roosevelt Corollary

Addition to the Monroe Doctrine articulated by President TheodoreRoosevelt.

Stated that Europeans weren’t allowed to come into our hemisphere and interfere in any way,but we could.

Asserted that the U.S. might intervene in the affairs of an American republic threatenedwith seizure or intervention by a European country.

Moral Imperialism

Woodrow Wilson's idea for expanding power over other countries for their own good. The desire and tendencyto impose one's own moral standards on others.

William Jennings Bryan: anti-imperialist (quit Secretary of State to protest moral imperialism)

Pancho Villa

(Francisco Villa) A Mexican revolutionary leader and guerrilla leader who fought againstthe regimes of both Porfirio Díaz and Victoriano Huerta and after 1914 engaged in civil war and banditry.Defeated in the struggle for the presidency of Mexico after the Mexican Revolution (1910).

At one point,Villa raided a town in NM.

The US sent troops under General John Pershing in pursuit of Villa

US and Mexico nearly went to war.

The Battle of Veracruz

1914: secret arms shipment for Huerta arriving from Germany (sent for by ambassador Henry Wilson)

- actually financed by American arms company Pres. Wilson sends sailors and marines to occupy Veracruz, landing place of Hernan Cortes and Winfield Scott (both started invasion of Mexico) 100 Mexicans, and 19 Americans killed

Five Dollar Day

1914 - more than doubled previous Ford daily wage - today’s wages, about $15 per hour.

Five Dollar Day: The Social Department

- had to qualify: not allowed to smoke, drink, or swear at work and discouraged

- at home inspectors watched and paid surprise visits to houses.

The Dearborn Independent

est. in 1901

published by Henry Ford from 1919-1927

Ford International Weekly Paper

“If fans wish to know the trouble with American baseball, they have it in three words, too much Jew.” - Henry Ford, 1920

Zimmermann Telegram,

Jan. 1917: internal diplomatic communication issued from the German Foreign Office. Proposed a military alliance between Germany and Mexico if United States' entered World War I against Germany.

Proposal was intercepted and decoded by British intelligence.

Revelation of the contents enraged American public opinion and helped generate support for the United States declaration of war on Germany in Apr. 1917

US involved in WWI 1917-1918

Alvin C. York -

WWI soldier from Fentress County, TN.

Youth: wild and heavy drinker

has religious epiphany later, becomes pacifist (not recognized by government)

Exceptional marksmen

Drafted into war, went over seas, and tried to not kill anyone. Ended up involved in fighting after seeing comrades being shot. Defeated (along with approx. 8 men) 200 German soldiers and caused to surrender.

Highly decorated by US and French - most decorated solider up to that point.

Celebrated after coming home. Refused to endorse a movie story or products.

20 years later (WWII) Warner Brothers approaches York again to tell his story to encourage soldiers. Takes money, donates much of it and starts York Institute. Sergeant York was made starring Gary Cooper.

1917 Espionage Act and 1918 Sedition Act

Espionage: spying (rendering comfort to enemy) Sedition: speaking out again government = treason

Eugene Debs (antiwar speech) - imprisoned

Tom Watson (Criticizing the draft) - draft violates states rights

John White (Comparing Germans to US in Philippines) - imprisoned

J.F. “Judge” Rutherford (pacifism) - leader of Jehovah’s Witnesses, entire board imprisoned for promoting pacifism.

Niagara Movement

1905: black civil rights organization founded by a group led by W. E. B. DuBois andWilliam Monroe Trotter.

The principles behind the Niagara Movement opposed Booker T. Washington’sphilosophy of accommodations.

Drafted a “Declaration of Principles.”

Demanded equal rights.

Tried to meet in Buffalo NY but not allowed. Instead meets at Niagara along the border.

Movement lasted about 3 years until controversy between letting women join movement or not (Du Bois supported women joining)

The Great Migration

Beginning of WWI, 90% of black lived in South Between 1910 and 1920, the widespread migration of some six million blacks from ruralcommunities in the South to large cities in the North and West.

They left the South and moved due north.

Red Summer of 1919

1917 prelude: race riot East St. Louis, IL

1919: 34 race riots - most were active black soldiers being targeted

Chicago, IL; Washington, DC; Elaine, Arkansas; Longview, TX; Charleston, SC; Bisbee, AZ; Knoxville, TN; Norfolk, VA; Omaha, NE;

1921 Tulsa riot - middle class black neighborhood targeted

1923 Rosewood Massacre

Marcus Garvey

Founded Universal Negro Improvement Association

Black Nationalism: called for land to be given to blacks to be able to rule themselves (not de-segregation)

Garvey: charismatic, movement ended after being involved in shipping and corruption

Palmer Raids

Part of Red Scare

1919-1920: authorized by Attorney General A. Mitchel Palmer Response to Russian Revolution and wave of US strikes

Led by 24 yr old J. Edgar Hoover, from the Radical Division of the Justice Dept.

Targeted immigrants and unions, 5000 held without warrants.

Public support dwindles

Setback for radicals.

Sacco and Vanzetti

Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti (leaders of anarchy movement)

-robbery May, 1920

-executed August 1927

A controversial murder trial in Massachusetts, US extending over seven years andresulting in the execution of the defendants.

Italian anarchistsaccused of killing the paymaster of a shoe factory and a guard to get the payroll they were carrying.

Another person confessed to having done the crime but they were executed anyway.

“Even though we are innocent of this crime, we are guilty of what you have accused us of”


A social and economic order that is based on the systematic creation of a desire to purchase goods and services in ever greater amounts. basically development of advertising and marketing (starting with propaganda in WWI)

Harlem Renaissance

During the time, it was known as the "New NegroMovement."

Started in Harlem, NY between the end of WWI and the mid-1930s

Cultural, social, and artistic explosion that took place during this period for black writers, artists, musicians, photographers, poets, and scholars.

The Lost Generation

Ernest Hemingway coined term in novel, The Sun Also Rises.

Generation that came of age during World War I.

Viewed,as a result of their war experiences and the social upheaval of the time, as cynical, disillusioned, andwithout cultural/emotional stability. (More specifically, US writers who came of age during the war andwrote afterwards)

The Man Nobody Knows

1925: Book written by Bruce Barton (from middle TN)

Jesus was a business entrepreneur and a brilliant salesman

“a virile go-getting he-man of business”

Apostles = a great business organization

Will Rogers

Popular Cherokee comedian.

Started as cowboy who did rope tricks.

Famous for blunt and homespun humor.

Famous for his sharp buthumorous comments about politicians and news events.

Films included State Fair and Steamboat Roundthe Bend.

The Big Die Up

Blizzard of 1886-1887 - big loss of cattle due to blizzard. (gave cowboys idea to fence areas for cattle.)

End of free-rang cattle.

Mark Twain

Born Samuel Clemens.

American author.

Wrote under pen name.

Didn't like Indians.

Washington Naval Arms Conference


5 : 5 : 3 : 1.75 : 1.75

Devised formula for how big a country’s naval army could get.

Ill-feeling developed between countries about that (specifically Japan)

Huey Long.

Governor of Louisiana and represented that state in the Senate.

social reforms and radical welfare proposals were ultimately overshadowed by the unprecedented executive dictatorship that he perpetrated to ensure control of his home state.


Planned to run for president but was assassinated in 1932.

Nicknamed “Kingfish.”

Created a “Share Our Wealth” plan to give a decent standard of living to all Americans by spreading the nation’s wealth among the people

John Maynard Keynes

An English author and economist who is well­known for his stance that national governments should attempt to counteract the effects of economic problems (like recessions) by using fiscal and monetary policy (ex: spending more money on public projects).

Helped to establish the International Monetary Fund.

Fireside chats

A series of informal radio addresses given by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1930s.

In his fireside chats, Roosevelt sought to explain his policies to the American public and to calm fears about the Great Depression.

Andrew Mellon

A financier who served as Secretary of the Treasury for 11 years under Republican presidents Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover.

Advocated the Mellon Plan, economic legislation passed by Congress (1924) reducing taxes for businesses.


Believed profit for big companies meant profit for America.

The New Deal

A group of government programs and policies established under Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1930s.

Designed to bring about immediate economic relief as well as reforms in industry, agriculture, finance, labor, etc.

Embraced the concept of a government­regulated economy, vastly increased the scope of the federal government’s activities.

Works Progress Administration

The largest and most ambitious New Deal agency, employing millions of unemployed people (mostly unskilled men) to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads.

A work program for the unemployed.

The Dust Bowl

A parched region of the Great Plains , including parts of Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Texas , where a combination of drought and soil erosion created enormous dust-storms in the 1930s (during the Depression).

The Wagner Act

Also known as, National Labor Relations Act. 1935.

Made the fed. gov’t the arbiter of employer-­employee relations through the creation of the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB).

Established the legal right of most workers to organize or join labor unions and to bargain collectively with their employers.

Sponsored by Sen. Robert F. Wagner of New York.

John Collier

An outspoken proponent of American Indian culture. His appointment as Commissioner of Indian Affairs helped shape federal policy toward Native Americans, especially through the Indian Reorganization Act (which ended the hated land­ allotments policy and promoted more progressive
policies for indians).

Wrote Indians of the Americas.