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46 Cards in this Set

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Venture Smith, a Connecticut Slave, Earns His Freedom, 1729-1766
different owners in the life of a slave
-given chance with another master and eventually got his freedom
John Adams, a College Graduate, Views Rural Massachusetts, 1760
-disagrees with Ben Prat's speech that free education is the bane of society
-says lawyers live upon the sins of people-if men were just and honest, there would be no need for them
Anna Green Winslow, a Schoolgirl, Learns About Growing Up in Boston, 1771
-patchwork
-children die
Philip Vickers Fithian, a New Jersey Tutor, Admires the Tidewater Gentry, 1773
-praises the education
-the people of VA are hospitable, and don't swear or game
-notes torture instruments for slaves
Essay be Greene
"The Preconditions of the American Revolution"
-identifies chronic tensions in the imperial system that lay beneath the surface of order and harmony prior to 1763
Essay by Beeman
"The Emergence of Popular Politics"
-offers a perspective on colonial affairs rooted in local rather than imperial experience
Benjamin Franklin, et al., Devise Albany Plan of Colonial Union, 1754
in the 1750s and 60s, Franklin was deeply interested in the success of the British Empire. When war with France loomed in 1754, along with Hutchinson, he went to New York to plan a coordinated colonial and imperial military policy
-this is the draft of the plan
Franklin Predicts the Plan of Union Will Fail, 1754
Franklin admits that the plan will not work
Order in Council on the Reform of the Customs Service, 1763
-a key London approach to improve imperial administration by making a temporary wartime reform permanent
Rev. Thomas Barnard Looks to Future Glories, 1763
-brought up millenialist enthusiasm to the glorification of the British Empire, though later he would support American independence
-"under her shadow we shall be safe"
-"George gives peace to the whole world"
Essay by Anderson
"Friction Between Colonial Troops and British Regulars"
-explains some of the reasons why, even in victory, joint military operations produced tension in the colonial relationship with Britain
Essay by Marshall
"Britain Defined by Its Empire"
-explores the ways in which the colonies helped to define British national identity in the 18th century. Clearly colonial America was more than a commerical asset to Britain.
Virginia Stamp Act Resolution, 1765
proposed by Patrick Henry
Governor Francis Bernard Describes the Boston Riot, 1765
shows the ideas and actions of a politically awakened colonial population
The Declarations of the Stamp Act Congress, 1765
- colonists have same allegiance to the king as those in Britain and are inclined to pay taxes
"William Pym" Asserts Parliamentary Supremacy, 1765
"the people of the colonies know very well that the taxes of the Mother country are every day increasing; and can they expect that no addition whatsoever will made to theirs?
The House of Commons Questions Benjamin Franklin, 1766
house asks ben franklin questions
Lord Camden (Charles Pratt) Exhorts Parliament to Change Direction, 1766
"because the colonies had no representatives in parliament to give consent: no answer was given to these pamphlets, no censure passed upon them; men were not startled at the doctrine as either new or illegal, or derogatory to the rights of parliament"
Parliament Repeals the Stamp Act but Declares Its Authority, 1766
parliament repealed the act, but still had authority to tax colonies
John Dickinson Exhorts the Colonists to Opposition, 1767-1768
first appeared in colonial newspapers
Charleston Merchants Propose a Plan of Nonimportation, 1769
provided a theoretical foundation for colonial opposition
Essay by Morgans
"The Assertion of Parliamentary Control and Its Significance"
argue that Prime Minister George Grenville deviously used the Stamp Act to establish the authority of Parliament in the colonies. Conciliatory Americans who wished to supply revenues to Britain by their own means were first encouraged but then brushed aside in a way that provoked stern resistance. The Morgans also go on to explain how, following the repeal of the Stamp Act in 1766 and the simultaneous reassertion of Parliament's right to legislate for the colonies "in all cases whatsoever," the conflict was renewed over the Townshend Acts, a series of customs duties intended to achieve the same objectives as the Stamp Act but by a slightly more indirect route.
Essay by Breen
"Boycotts Made the Revolution Radical"
-presents a fresh representation of the independence movement that recognizes the power of ideology and economic interest
-the boycott movement created a new, inclusive, American revolutionary community
Essay by Doerflinger
"The Mixed Motives of Merchant Revolutionaries"
-examines the variety of factors that influenced the men who led Pennsylvania into the Revolution at a more gradual pace than Massachusetts or Virginia
Essay by Maier
"Declaring Independence"
-explains the complicated interplay of external events and political maneuvering that produced the Declaration
King George Proclaims America in Rebellion, 1775
-said that the colonies were now in rebellion and had to be suppressed
-called them traitors
Thomas Paine Calls for Common Sense, 1776
-this pamphlet, published in January 1776 by an anonymous English immigrant, rapidly circulated among households and gave the once-frightening idea of independence legitimacy
-"society is a blessing, but government is a necessary evil"
-"constitution of England is complex-may not know where the fault lies"
-"being associated with GB, puts America at risk with quarrels with other nations"
-reasons to declare independence: king has a negative reign over continent, America a secondary object in British politics, even on best terms America will rebel eventually, nothing but independence can keep the peace and preserve it from civil wars
-"strength lies in unity"
-"have natural resources"
Declaration of Independence, 1776
-grounding the Declaration on both natural rights and the rights of Englishmen under the British Constitution, they asserted American independence on a broad but legalistic basis quite different form Thomas Paine's sweeping rejection of monarchy and the whole corrupt British system
-spelled out grievances towards King George III
John Adams Discusses Military Preparation, 1776
-advocate of a regular army and discipline
General George Washington Asks Congress for an Effective Army, 1776
-only way to get good officers to establish them permanently with good pay
-only way to get men to stay for the duration of the war, is to pay them well
-the difficulty and cost of inslistments will increase with time
-militia is relaxed and unfit
Congress Calls on States to Support Continental Army, 1776
-militia is difficult to keep in camp, and therefore would be improper to place whole dependence on them
-without a disciplined army, we can never expect success against veteran troops
A Soldier Views Mutiny Among American Troops, 1780
-hungry soldiers
General George Washington Explains Army Problems and Calls for Help, 1780
-provisions ran low
Essay by Shy
"Hearts and Minds: The Case of 'Long Bill' Scott"
-explores the interplay of interests confronting Congress and American soldiers during the war
-by comparing myths and realities in his essay on "Long Bill" Scott, Shy reveals that the question of the motive-why me fought-may be answered at several levels
Essay by Higginbotham
"The Strengths and Weaknesses of the Militia"
-the much celebrated and much maligned role of the militia is assessed
Patriots Intimidate a New Jersey Loyalist, 1775
-tarred and feathered a loyalist
A Patriot Urges Congress to Execute Loyalists, 1776
""
A Newspaper Attack on Loyalists, 1779
-"the tories will ruin you"
Thomas Hutchinson Criticizes the Declaration of Independence, 1776
-ex-governor illustrates that, from a Loyalist perspective, the sacred American text was just a false propaganda piece
-"colonists will not pay any mind to the Supreme Legislatures and have pretended that these laws were the mandates of ministers, not the acts of constitutional legislative power"
Loyalists Plead Their Cause to the King, Parliament, and the British People, 1782
-reveals loyalist views of defeat and victimhood
-say that they were always loyal, and even under heavy expenses, still feel their obligations for Britain
Benjamin Rush Contrasts Loyalists and Patriots, 1777
-offers his wartime analysis of who became a patriot and who became a loyalist
-tories were from an attachment to power and office and British commerce and kingly govt and the hierarchy of the Church of England; afraid that the country would be taken over by Presbyterians
-whigs wanted to share the country, cancel debts with Britain
*see article for all comparisons
Essay by Dowd
"There Was Not Winning Strategy for the Indians"
-recounts the impact of the Revolutionary War for native Americans of the Ohio Region
-apparent that there was only a narrow range of options for the Indians, none of them particularly effective
-the treaties of 1763 and 1783 combined to create a half-century or more of instability and ultimate decline for the Indians of the trans-Appalachian region
Price, "The Imperial Economy"
-Britain's colonial trade was a manifestation of its emergence as a sea power
-expansion of markets for rural manufacturers
-foreign trade undertaken by merchants
-growing demand of tea from China
-most valuable colonial import was West Indies' sugar
-raw materials from the Americas
-Britain's exports mostly consisted of textiles
-no trades were balanced
-demand arising from the commercial Empire must be viewed as an important part of the aggregate demand experienced by British manufacturers
Biography of Henry Cruger
-one of only 3 mainland American colonists to be elected member of parliament during the late colonial period
-took his seat in the wake of the Coersive Acts of 1774
-moderate attitude towards Americans
-motive was to win the ears of the ministers in order to influence them to take a more conciliatory approach to the burgeoning conflict with the colonies
-supported repeal of Declaratory Act, and in 1780 declared support for Americans
Biography of Andrew Oliver
-Hutchinson helped secure Oliver's position as secretary and later lieutenant governor of Massachusetts
-prime target after Stamp Act
Biography of Benedict Arnold
-in 1774 elected captain of an élite company of New Hampshire militia and marched without orders to Boston
-Arnold and Allen captured Ticonderoga and Crown Point
-his first 2 campaigns were military failures
-succumed to British temptations while military governor of Philadelphia
-Arnold's treason, along with military defeats in the South, shocked supporters of the faltering American cause
-shunned by both British and loyalist society