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103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Decentration
focusing on several aspects of a problem and relating them
Reversibility
the capability to think through a series of steps and then mentally reverse direction, returning to the starting point
classification
success in class inclusion problems
- children can focus on relations b/n a general and two specific categories at the same time
Seriation
the ability to order items along a quantitative dimension, such as length or weight
Spatial Reasoning
cognitive map: mental representations of familiar large-scale spaces, such as their neighborhood or school
How do children in the concrete operational stage differ from children in the informal operational stage?
- children think in an organized, logical fashion only when dealing with concrete information they can perceive directly
- mental operation works poorly with abstract ideas - ones not apparent in the real world
What are some of the criticisms of concrete operational stage?
- Piaget (brain development and experience) vs. cultural/school practices
- Neo-Piagetian Theory (with practice, schemes demand less attention and become more automatic)
rehearsal
repeating the information
organization
grouping related items together
elaboration
creating a relationship, or shared meaning, b/n two or more pieces of information that don't belong to the same category
What is the impact of the knowledge base on memory?
- easy to remember - why? new info is more meaningful to them
- high motivation w/ regard to the area of expertise
The Theory of Mind
- view about human mind -->
*preschooler - passive container of info
*school ager - active, constructive agent that selects and transforms info
second order false belief
people form beliefs about other people's beliefs
cognitive self-development
the process of continuously monitoring progress toward a goal, checking outcomes, and redirecting unsuccessful efforts
current measurement to assess IQ
verbal, perceptual, working-memory, processing-speed
Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Successful Intelligence
- Analytical Intelligence (information processing skills)
- Creative Intelligence (capacity to solve novel problems)
- Practical Intelligence (application of intellectual skills in everyday situations)
Implications of Triarchic Theory
- highlight various aspects of intelligence neglected in current intelligence test (out of school, practical forms of intelligence)
- can identify successful individuals who are under-estimated when current IQ test is used
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences
- distinct sets of processing operations that permit individuals to engage in a wide range of culturally valued activities
- dismissing the idea of general intelligence, proposes at least eight independent intelligence
- each has a unique biological basis, a distinct course of development, and different expert performances
Contributions of Theory of Multiple Intelligences
calls attention to several abilities, not measured by intelligence test, but vital for satisfying, successful life
Limitations of Theory of Multiple Intelligences
- neurological evidence for the independence of his abilities is weak
- exceptionally gifted individuals having broad abilities
How does self-concept change during middle childhood?
- children refine their self-concept, organizing their observations of behaviors and internal states into more balanced, general dispositions
- becomes more comprehensive, can describe their personality, and have a relative self concept
Social Comparison
judgement of one's own appearance, abilities, and behaviors in relations to those of others
Idea Self
used to evaluate a real self
How is self-esteem changed during middle childhood?
- differentiates and adjusts to a more realistic level, influenced by social comparison
- takes on a hierarchical structure (physical appearance most important)
Who has a higher self-esteem - asian cultures or other cultures
other cultures have higher self-esteem because strong emphasis on social comparison and social harmony on Asian cultures
Who has a higher self-esteem - african americans or caucasians?
african americans because warm extended family and stronger ethnic pride
Who has a higher self-esteem - girls or boys?
boys are higher because girls internalize negative cultural messages, but only slightly
mastery oriented attributions
success to ability (that they can improve) and failure due to factors that can be changed or controlled (luck, insufficient effort)
learned helplessness
success to external factors (luck) and failure due to ability (no room to improve, they think it's just luck)
problem-centered coping
- used when children appraise the situation as changeable
- identify the difficult and decide what to do about it
- problem solving, seeking social support
emotion-centered coping
- used when children appraise the situation as being beyond their control
- internal, private, and aimed at controlling distress
- distracting attention, redefining situation
corregulation
- a form of supervision in which parents exercise general oversight while letting children take charge of moment by moment decision making
- grows out of cooperative relationship b/n parent and child based on give and take decision making
immediate consequences of divorce
- family conflict dispute over children and possessions
- sharp drop of income
- high maternal stress, depression, anxiety
- harsh and inconsistent punishment
affects of a child's age on divorce
- younger child: blame themselves, feeling fear of abandonment
- older children: some are supportive, others resentful, angry, act out
long term consequences of divorce
- most children show improved adjustment by two years after divorce
- slightly lower in academic achievement, self-esteem, social competence, and emotional adjustment
- problem with adolescent sexuality and development of intimate ties
What are the changes in the brain during adolescence?
becomes more responsive to excitatory neurotransmitters during puberty
- react more strongly to stressful events & experience pleasurable stimuli more intensely
What is the role of physical attractiveness during adolescence?
- body image is strong predictor of self-esteem
-public image favors late-maturing girls and early-maturing boys
Hypothetico-Deductive Reasoning
- used when faced with problems
- build a hypothesis
- deduce logical, testable inferences
- systematically isolate and combine variables to see which inferences are confirmed in real life
propositional thought
adolescent's ability to evaluate logic of propositions (verbal scripts) without referring to real-world circumstances
criticism of hypothetico-deductive reasoning - are children capable and do all individuals reach final stage?
- if the question becomes simplified, children also succeed in hypothetico-deductive reasoning and propsitional thought
- years of schooling affects gains in propositional thought
- even well-educated adults frequently have difficulty w/ systematic reasoning
imaginary audience
adolescent's belief that they are the focus of everyones attention and concern
personal fable
an inflated opinion of their own importance, a feeling that they are special and unique
decision making among adolescents
- lack of rational decision making (identify pros and cons of each alternative, assess likelihood of various outcomes, evaluate their choice in terms of whether their goal is met, learn from mistakes)
- reliance on intuitive judgements
- why - insufficient knowledge to predict potential outcomes
Erikson's Theory - Identity
- defining who you are, what you value, and direction in life
- commitments to vocation, personal relationships, sexual orientation, ethnic group, ideals
- based on earlier successes and will be basis for future successes
Erikson's Theory - role confusion
- lack of direction and definition of self
- restricted exploration in adolescence
- unprepared for stages of adulthood
identity crisis
- in complex societies, teenagers experience a temporary period of distress as they experiment with alternatives before setting on values and goals
- late researchers - a process of exploration followed by commitment
changes in self-concept during adolescence
- unify, separate traits into larger, abstract one (first often contradictory, combine traits into organized system)
high commitment and high level of exploration
achievement
high commitment and low level of exploration
foreclosure
low commitment and high level of exploration
moratorium
low commitment and low level or exploration
diffusion
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
cognitive developmental theory of moral understanding
Heinz Dilemma
- conflict b/n moral values (obeying laws vs. preserving individual rights)
- moral level will be decided baed on individual reasons, not content
cliques
- groups of about 5-7 members who are friends
- usually resemble one another in family background, attitudes, and values
- membership is more important to girls, who use it as a context for expressing emotional closeness
crowds
- often several cliques w/ similar values form a larger, more loosely organized group based on reputation and stereotype
gender intensification
increased gender stereotyping of attitudes and behavior and movement toward a more traditional general identity
parental monitoring
consistent parental monitoring through a cooperative relationship in which the adolescent willingly discloses info, is linked to variety of positive outcomes
"marriage is sexually dull"
- in committed relationships 80% reported extreme satisfaction
- 88% among married couples
"people with many partners have the hottest sex"
- as # increases, satisfaction decreases sharply (don't have stable relationships)
- satisfying sex is attained in context of love, affection, and fidelity
Perry's Theory of Epistemic Cognition
- Dualistic Thinking
- Relativistic Thinking
- Commitment w/ Relativistic Thinking
- Peer Interaction and Reflection
dualistic thinking
divide info, values, and authority into right and wrong, good and bad, we and they
- how you think when you approach complex question
- depend on instructor to give student answers (SAT type thinking)
relativistic thinking
view all knowledge as embedded in a framework of thought, aware of diversity b/c must think of multiple views
- there may be no absolute truth, but based on context to create own answer, developed b/c experiences
commitment with relativistic thinking
try to formulate a more satisfying perspective that synthesizes contradictions (combo of stage 1 and 2)
- need to move to this stage to understand that there are multiple truths, but can still have a best answer
peer interaction and reflection
interaction among individuals who are roughly equal in knowledge and authority is beneficial
"work alone condition" vs. "interactive condition"
- 9% vs. 75%
- working model is limited so when dealing with complex problems, they divide load to be able to successfully tackle problem
collective rationality
members challenge one another to justify their reasoning and collaborated in working out the most defensible strategy
Labouvie-Vief's Theory - pragmatic thought
- a structural advance in which logic becomes a tool for solving real-world problems: need to focus on logic to solve problem
- adulthood brings the chance to solve real-world problems
Labouvie-Vief's Theory - cognitive - affectivity complexity
- awareness of + an - feelings and coordination of them into complex, organized structure (ex - bitter sweet feeling)
- promotes greater awareness of ones own and others perspectives and motivations
expertise
- acquisition of extensive knowledge in a field or endeavor
- affects information processing
- experts
experts
- remember & reason more quickly and effective than novice
- if have a lot of knowledge about topic already, processed automatically which is why more space in working memory - why they can process info quicker
- approach to underlying principle <-> novice superficial (novice will think about issues independently b/c don't grasp underlying principle)
- problem solving, plan ahead = systematically analyze and categorize elements, select best from many possibilities <-> novice - trial and error
creativity
- mature creativity - the ability to formulate new, culturally meaningful problems, and to ask significant questions that have not been posed before
- rooted in expertise b/c based on experiences
- 10-year rule
- rises in early adulthood, peaks in later 30s
fantasy period
- childhood: gain insight into career options by fantasizing about them
- EX: when asking what they want to be - pick coolest thing they can think of
tentative period
adolescence: interest --> abilities and values
- EX: want to go to Stanford, but realized grades not good enough
realistic period
late adolescence: further exploration - crystalization
dual-cycle model
- cycle b/n making and evaluating commitments
- personal agency - sense of purpose, self-efficacy, determination to overcome obstacles, responsibility for outcomes
Levinson's Seasons of Life
- life structure
- early adult transition
- early adulthood life structure
- age-30 transition
life structure
- blueprint
- the underlying design of a persons life consisting of relationships with significant others
- aimed at harmonizing inner personal and outer societal demands
early adult transition
- dream: an image of themselves in the adult world that guides their decision making
- when they come to end of adolescence, try to identify themselves as adults
- relationships w/ mentor who fascilitates realization of the dream
early adulthood structure
- men: settling down process (after exploring options, decide and settle down)
- women: dream - conflict b/n work and family
age-30 transition
-reevaluate life structure - see what's missing
- often focus on underdeveloped aspects
Vallient's Adaptation to Life - major concerns
- 20s: intimacy concerns
- 30s: career consolidation
- 40s: generativity
- 50s: keeper of meaning
- 70s: spiritual and reflective
Vallient's Adaptation to Life - limitations
- sample: people born in first few decades of 20th century, few low-SES people
- interview method: depends on retrospective method
social clock
- age-graded expectations for major life events, such as beginning first job, getting married, birth of first child, buying a home, and retiring
- following a social clock of some kind seems to foster confidence
triangular theory of love - components
- intimacy: emotional part, warm, tender communication expressions of concern about others well-being, desire for the partner to reciprocate
- passion: desire for sexual activity and romance
- commitment: cognitive part, decision to be in and maintain love
type a behavior
- extreme competitiveness, ambition, impatience, hostility, angry outbursts, sense of time pressure
- type b is easygoing, carefree, less likely to have heart problems than type a
hardiness
- control: regard most experiences as controllable
- commitment: find interest & meaning in daily activities
- challenge: view as normal part of life, change for growth
crystallized intelligence
- skills that depend on accumulated knowledge and experience, good judgement, and master of social conventions
- affected by culture
- increase steadily through middle adulthood
fluid intelligence
- basic information processing skills
- ability to detect relationships among visual stimuli, speed of analyzing info, capacity of working memory
- begins to decrease in 20s
information processing perspective in middle adulthood
- speed of processing decreases
- neural network view: neurons die, break neural connection, new connection - less efficient
- info loss view: info lost at each step through cognitive system
- more difficulties with attention
- memory: working decreases from 20s-60s and memory strategy used less often and effective
- compensation: self-pacing, strategy reminder, relevant info
- practical problem solving: evaluate real world situations, achieve goals that have high uncertainty
Erikson' Theory - generativity
- reaching out to others in ways that give to and guide the next generation
- commitment extends beyond self
- often realized through child-rearing
Erikson's Theory - stagnation
- place own comfort and security above challenge and sacrifice
- self-centered, self-indulgent, self-absorbed
- lack of involvement or concern with young people
- little interest in work, productivity, self-improvement
Levinson's Seasons of Life - middle adulthood
- time is running out in life
- evaluate drastic or small changes
- young - old: find new ways of being both
- destruction - creation: acknowledge past destructiveness, try to create products of value
- engagement - separateness: balance involvement with external world and separateness from it
masculinity - femininity: balance
Valiant's Adaptation to Life - middle adulthood
- keepers of meaning
- passing the torch
midlife crisis
- turning points: wide individual differences, work-related
- men: midlife
- women: early adulthood
possible selves
- what one hopes or fears becoming
-become fewer, more modest and concrete with age
- more time-oriented with age
change in self perception - middle adulthood
- self-acceptance: accepted both good and bad qualities, felt positively
- autonomy: less concerned about other's expectations and evaluation
- environmental master: capable of managing a complex task easily and effectivley
average health life expectancy
- # of years person born in a particular year can expect to live in full health w/o disease or injury
- US ranks 29th
- Japan ranks 1st because low obesity & heart rate, and favorable health-care system
quality of life
- activities of daily living
- instrumental activities of daily living
- people at this age cherish how autonomous they are able to be
activities of daily living
- basic self-care tasks such as bathing, dressing, eating
instrumental activities of daily living
- conducting business of everyday life such as shopping, housekeeping
maximum lifespan
- hypothetically how long a person can live
- genetic limit to length of life for a person free of external risk factors
- estimates b/n 70 - 100, average 85
upper limit of maximum lifespan
- people disagree on issue (whether we've reached it or not)
change in and adapting to cognitive abilities (late adulthood)
- fluid intelligence starts to decline earlier
- crystallized intelligence may off set losses in fluid intelligence
- loss > improvement and maintenance
- still plastic
- memory