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156 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Integumentary System
*Skin
*Largest Organ of the body
*All over inside and outside of body
*Function:
1. Regulates body temperature 2. Protection
3. Sensation
4. Excretion
5. Immunity
6. Synthesis of vitamin D
2 Types of Skin
Glabrous
Hairy Skin
Glabrous
Hairless Skin
i.e.: palm, soles, lips, umbilicus, parts of external genitalia
2 layers of skin
Epidermis
Dermis
Epidermis
*Thin, Avascular
*Top Layer: Stratum Corneum
*Bottom: Stratum Basale
Four types of Cells in Epidermis
1) Keratinocytes (90%)- waterproofing/ grip
2) Melanocytes- skin coloration
3) Langerhans- immunity
4) Merkel- Touch
Stratum Basale
1. AKA Stratum Germinativum
2. Deepest layer
3. Actively undergoing mitotic division- pushing older cells upward
Stratum Corneum
1. Outer Layer
2. Cornified or Keratinized
3. Cells sloughped off
4. Varies in thickness- thicker where glabrous
Melanin
*Skin Pigment
*Highest Concentration in Stratum Basale
Surface Marking of Epidermis
1) Papillary Ridges
2) Tension LInes
3) Flexure lines
Papillary Ridges
Prints found only on glabrous skin
Tension Lines
*Formed in every part of the epidermis
* Non keratinized lines
* Allow movement and stretch in skin
Flexure Lines
*Formed where underlying joints bend the skin
*Improves Joint movement
Dermis
*Connective tissue that is well-vascularized and highly-innervated.
*Thickness varies- thicker on posterior surfaces and thicker on men
2 Layers of the dermis
1. Papillary
2. Reticular Layer
Papillary Layer
1. Adjacent to Epidermis
2. Highly sensitive vascular eminences
3. Only found where papillary ridges are formed
Reticular Layer
Bundles of collagen fibers that form most of dermis
Cleavage Lines/ Langer's Lines
Bundles of Collagen fibers arranged in characteristic patterns forming cleavage lines
Skin Appendages
1. Cutaneous muscles
2. Glands
3. Finger/ Toe nails
4. Hair
Cutaneous Muscles
* AKA Integumentary Muscles
* Orginate and insert on the dermis or/and superficial fascia
Striated Cutaneous Muscles
*Platysma
*Facial Expression
*Palmaris brevis o hand
Smooth Cutaneous Muscles
*Arrector Pili muscles
*Dermis layer of scrotum, penis, labia majora & nipples
Nails
Plates of keratin that are homologous to the stratum corneum
Nail Body
Exposed portion of nail
Lunule of nail
Pale crescent at proximal end of plate
Matrix of nail
Deep to lunule- very thick epithelium
Root of nail
Part of nail proximal to the body and is covered by skin.
4 Types of Hair
1. Lanugo
2. Vellus
3. Terminal
4. Vibrissae
Lanugo
fine downy hair covering a fetus- falls of shortly after birth
Vellus
Short delicate hair which covers most of the body
Terminal
*Long, thick hair.
*Covers the head, axilla, pubic regions, chest, abdomen and legs
Vibrissae
Long straight hairs associated with special sensory organs like nose and ears.
Parts of hair
1) Root- implanted in skin
2) Shaft- projects from the surface
3) Hair Follicle- holds root
4) Sebaceous Glands- empty into hair follicles
5) Arrector Pili muscle- attached to each hair follicle
Cutaneous Glands
1. Sebaceous Glands
2. Sweat Glands
Sebaceous Glands
*Oily secretions into hair follicles.
*Found all over skin but mostly in scalp & face
Sweat Glands
*Sudoriferous
*Secrete a serous/ watery substance
*Found all over skin
2 Types of Sudoriferous glands
1. Eccrine- Temperature control. Directly on surface of epidermis- mainly on grip surface

2. Apocrine- Pheremones. Localized in eyelids, external ear, nipples, axilla, circumanal, genital regions
5 Bone Shapes
1. Long
2. Short
3. Flat
4. Irregular
5. Sesamoid
Long Bones
*i.e. Humerus & Femur
*Mainly in limbs
* Epiphyses, diaphysis, metaphyses
Short Bones
*Only in hands and feet
*Usually somewhat cubical in shape
Flat Bones
*i.e. Scapula and Illium
*Protective in function
Irregular Bones
*i.e. facial bones and vertebrae
Sesamoid Bones
*Looks like sesame seeds.
*Develop in certain tendons to reduce friction on tendon. Protects from excessive wear
*Patella is largest
3 Types of Muscles
1. Skeletal- Voluntary
2. Cardiac- Involuntary
3. Smooth- Involuntary
Tendon
*Dense connective tissue
*Attachment: Bone to Muscle
Aponeurosis
Broad tendon and is the attachment of a flat muscle
Fascia
*Covers muscles and organs
*Deep or Superficial
Superficial Fascia
*Fat cells, blood vessels, nerves
*Loose connective tissue that separates dermis from deep fascia
*Insulation & Protection
Areas where superfiscial and deep fascia are closely adherent.
*Scalp
*Palm
*Sole
*Flexure lines of skin
*Midline of nuchal region (back of neck)
Deep Fascia
*Dense connective tissue that surrounds all structures in the body.
*Covers muscles & organs.
*Forms discrete well-defined compartments- neck, leg, thigh, arm, breast, lungs
*Function: prevents spread of infection and malignant disease
2 Joint Categories
Solid Joints
Cavity
Joint
Bone + Bone
Arthrology
Study of Joints
3 Kinds of Fibrous/ Synarthrodial Joints (Solid Joints)
1. Sutures
2. Syndesmoses
3. Gomphoses
Suture
*Bones held together by several layers of fibrous tissue- suture ligaments.
*Skull only
*Sagittal, Lambdoidal, Coronal
Syndesmoses
*Bones held together by a SHEET of fibrous tissue
*e.g. interosseous membrane btwn tibia & fibula
*connects 2 long bones
Gomphosis
*Holds a tooth in alveolar socket
*Periodontal ligament
2 kinds of Cartilaginous/ Amphiarthrodia Joints (Solid Joints)
1. Synchondrosis
2. Symphysis

*allow some degree of movement
1 Kind of Cavity Joint
Synovial Joint
Synchondrosis
*Primary cartilaginous joint
*Hyaline cartilage connecting 2 bones
*Temporary (long bones) and Permanent (Sternocostal)
Symphysis
*Secondary cartilaginous joints
*Hyaline cartilage + fibrocartilage that connect 2 bones
*Limited movement
*Pubis & Interbody Joint of Spine
Synostosis Joints
When Fibrous tissue and Cartilage ossify- fuse together
Synovial/ Diarthrodia Joints (Cavity)
*Most common
*Relatively free movement
*Less stability
4 Types of Synovial Joint Movement
1. Gliding
2. Flexion/ Extension
3. Abduction/ Adduction
4. Circumduction
5. Rotation
Gliding
*Simplest motion
*No angular or rotatory movement
*2 surfaces gliding over each other
Flexion/ Extenstion
*Transverse (X) Axis, Sagittal Plane
Abduction/ Adduction
*Anteroposterior (Z) Axis
*Coronal (frontal) Plane
Circumduction
*Sequence of flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction
Rotation
*When bone rotates around its longitudinal (Y) axis, in a horizontal plane
Transverse Axis
*X Axis
*Saggital Plane
Anteroposterior Axis
*Z Axis
*Coronal (Frontal) Plane
Longitudinal Axis
*Y Axis
*Horizontal Plane
3 Types of Synovial Joints
1) Simple- 2 bones & 1 joint cavity
2) Compound- 3 or more bones & 1 joint cavity
3) Composite (Complex)- Articular Disc separates joint cavity into 2 synovial sacs
Example of Compound Synovial Joint
Knee
Example of Composite (Complex) Synovial Joint
1. Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ)
2. Sternoclavicular (SC) Joint
Classifications of Synovial Joints
1. Uniaxial
2. Biaxial
3. Triaxial
Ginglymus
*Hinge Joint
*Uniaxial Synovial Joint
*Resemble door hinge
*Transverse (X) axis
*Flexion/Extension only
EXAMPLES: Humeroulnar & Interphalangeal
Trochoid
*Pivot Joints
*Uniaxial
*Bony pivot-like process and a bony ring/notch.
*Rotate only around longitudinal (Y) axis
EXAMPLES: Proximal/ Distal radioulnar joints (Elbow/Wrist); Median Antlantoaxial Joint
Condyloid Joint
AKA: Elliposoid Joints

Synovial Joint: Biaxial

Appearance: Concave & Convex articular surfaces

Axis: Transverse (X) & Anterposterior (Z) (right angles)

Movement: Flexion/ Extension; Abduction/Adduction; circumduction

EXAMPLES: Radiocarpal joint (wrist) & Metacarpophalangeal joints
Sellar Joint
AKA: Saddle Joints

Synovial Joint: Biaxial

Appearance: Saddles for horses- perpendicular on each other

Axis: Transverse (X) & Anteroposterior (Z)

Movement: Flexion/ Extension, Abduction/ Adduction, Circumduction

EXAMPLES: Carpometacarpal joint of thumb & Talocrural joint of ankle
Bicondylar Joint
Synovial Joint: Biaxial

Appearance: Pair of concave/ convex articular surfaces

Axis: Transverse (X) & Longitudinal (Y)- perpendicular

Movement: Flexion/ Extension, rotation

EXAMPLES: Temporomandibular Joint; Knee
Spheroidal Joint
AKA: Ball & Socket

Synovial Joint: Triaxial

Appearance: Globular head & cup-shaped cavity

Axis: Transverse (X), Anteroposterior (Z), Longitudinal (Y)

Movement: Flexion/ Extension, Abduction/ Adduction, Circumduction, Rotation

EXAMPLES: Hip; Glenohumeral joint of shoulder
Plane Joints
AKA: Gliding

Synovial Joint: varies
Appearance: Flat articular surface allowing gliding movements

Uniaxial Examples: Intercarpal & Intertarsal Joints

Biaxial Examples: Midcarpal & Midtarsal Joints

Triaxial Examples: Zygapophyseal
Elements of a Synovial Joint
1. At least 2 bones
2. Ends are covered by articular cartilage
3. Separated by a Joint Cavity
4. Connected by a Joint Capsule- Articular Capsule
Articular Cartlidge
Mostly Hyaline Cartilage but some are fibrocartilage
Articular Capsule
*AKA Joint Capsule

*Tough outer Fibrous Layer & thin inner Synovial Membrane enclosing ligament connections
Synovial Membrane
*Inside Articular Capsule

*Synovial Membrane does not cover the articular cartilage

*Function:
1) Lubricate
2) Nourish articular cartilage
3) Absorb shock
Bursae
*Sac filled with synovial fluid and lined with synovial membrane.

*Found between surfaces that rub together
3 types of Bursae
1) Subcutaneous- skin & bone
2) Subtendinous- Tendon & bone
3) Submuscular- Muscle & bone
Synovial Tendon Sheaths
*Facilitates gliding movements

*Mostly found in wrist and ankle
OLympic OPium OCcupies TRoubled TRiathletes After Finishing VEgas Gambling VAcations Still HIgh
I. Olfactory
II. Optic
III. Oculomotor
IV. Trochlear
V. Trigeminal
VI. Abducens
VII. Facial
VIII. Vestibulocochlear
IX. Glossopharyngeal
X. Vagus
XI. Spinal Accessory
XII. Hypoglossal
Cranial Nerves
*From brain
*12 pairs
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SSMMBMBSBBMM
Some Say Marry Money But My Brother Says Big Brains Matter Most
I. Sensory
II. Sensory
III. Motor
IV. Motor
V. Both
VI. Motor
VII. Both
VIII. Sensory
IX. Both
X. Both
XI. Motor
XII. Motor
2 Types of Nerve Tissue
1. Neurons- transmit neural impulses

2. Neurological cells- Nourishment to neurons
Function of Nervous System
Regulate, control, coordinate and integrate activities of various body parts.
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Brain & Spinal Cord
Branches of Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
1. Somatic- Voluntary; Cranial & Spinal Nerves

2. Autonomic- Involuntary; Visceral Nerves (Sympathetic & Parasympathetic)
V. Trigeminal Branches
V1: Ophtlamic

V2: Maxillary

V3: Mandibular
Spinal Nerves
31 pairs:
8 Cervical
12 Thoracic
5 Lumbar
5 Sacral
1 Coccygeal

*** All Mixed Except: C1- M; Co1- S
2 Spinal Cord Roots
1) Ventral Root- Motor

2) Dorsal Root- Sensory
3 Branches of Spinal Nerve
* Distal to IVF
1. Recurrent Meningeal Nerve

2. White & Gray Rami Communicans

3. Primary Ventral and Dorsal Rami
Recurrent Meningeal Nerve
* Passes back into vertebral canal- provides sensory input
White & Gray Communicans
Convey sympathetic nerves to and from sympathetic chain ganglia
Primary Ventral Rami
Innervate skin & skeletal muscles of anterior and lateral trunk and extremities
Primary Dorsal Rami
31 pairs that innervate skin and skeletal muscles of posterior trunk.
Plexuses
Primary Ventral Rami in the following areas:

1. Cervical
2. Lumbar
3. Sacral
4. Coccygeal

*** Thoracic remains as nerves.
Cervical Plexus
Location: First 4 ventral rami of cervical nerves (C1-C4)

Innervates: Skin and muscles of neck
Brachial Plexus
Location: Ventral rami of 5th to 8th Cervical nerves and by first Thoracic (C5-T1)

Innervates: Skin and muscles of upper limbs.
Lumbar Plexus
Location: Ventral rami of first 4 lumbar nerves (L1-L4)

Innervates: Skin and muscles of lower limb
Sacral Plexus
Location: L4-L5 & S1-S4

Innervates: Skin and Muscles of lower limbs
Coccygeal Plexus
Location: Formed by 4th & 5th sacral nerves & Coccygeal nerve (S4-Co1)

Innervates: Skin & Coccygeal region (perineum)
Sympathetic Nerves
Origin/ Primary Neuron: Spinal Cord (T1-L2)- Thoracolumbar System

Ganglia- Secondary Neuron: Sympathetic ganglia chain

Description: Extra mural (short pre-ganglionic; long post-ganglionic)

Innervation:
1. Vescera & Glands
2. Blood Vessels
3. Skin Appendages: blood vessels, sweat glands, Arrector Pilli

Function: Flight or Fight in emergency
ParaSympathetic Nerves
Origin/ Primary Neuron: Brain Stem- spinal cord (S2-S4; Cranio Sacral (Cranial Nerves 3, 7, 9, 10)

Ganglia- Secondary Neuron: Parasympathetic Ganglia-Chain

Dexcription: Intra-mural Ganglia (Long Pre-ganglionic ; short post-ganglionic)

Innervation: Viscera and Gland Only

Function: Promote normal processes of the body in homeostasis
Dermatome
*Region of skin innervated by sensory nerve endings of a specific spinal nerve.

*30 Dermatones (C1 has no sensory component)

*C2-Co1

*Innervated from 3 nerves at cord levels

i.e. C5 dermatome- innervated from C4, C5, C6
Anethesia
Neurological deficit in at least 3 adjacent cord levels
Hypoesthesia or Paraesthesia
Reduced sensation caused by dysfunction or impairment of only 1 spinal nerve
Distribution of Dermatomes
Head: C2-C3

Back: C2-Co1

Upper Extremity: C5-T1

Anterior Body: T1-T12

Lower Extremity: L1-S4
Dermatome Testing
Pinwheel for sensation
Myotome
*Muscle that is innervated by motor nerve endings

*Muscle tests
Muscle Test
Polysynaptic reflex that includes voluntary activity by patient and involves higher brain centers
Deep Tendon Reflex
*DTR

*Monosynaptic reflex involving one sensory and one motor neuron.

*Asses a specific spinal nerve and cord level associated with a muscle

* Most common: C5, C6, C7, L4 & S1

*Reflex hammer
Circulatory System
*Transport & Delivery System including:

1) Cardiovascular System
2) Lymphatic Systems
Cardiovascular System
1. Heart
2. Blood Vessels
3. Blood Cells
Heart
*4 chambers- 2 Atria & 2 Ventricles

*Blood enters heart via atria and exits through ventricles
Blood Vessels
1. Arteries
2. Veins
3. Capillaries
4. Sinusoids
Arteries
Carry blood away from heart and distributes through body
Veins
Returns blood from body to heart.

*** Most veins contain valves that prevent the reflux of blood
Capillaries
Connect arteries to veins
Capillary Beds
*Communication networks of capillaries

*Gas and nutrition exchanges
Arteriovenous Anastomoses
*Arteries and veins have direct connections- no capillaries

*e.g. skin of nose, lips, ears, fingers
Sinusoids
*Wider and more irregular than capillaries.

*Replace capillaries in some organs

*e.g. liver, spleen, suprarenal cortex, parathyroid glands
Blood Cells
*Produced in marrow of long bones
RBC
*Red Blood Cells

* Broken down by the spleen and the liver after about 110 days

*Iron- attachment site of oxygen and carbon dioxide
WBC
*White Blood Cells

*Involved in immunity responses and are protective function
Aorta
*Receives oxygenated blood from left ventricle

*Blood is distributed to arteries, capillary beds
Systemic Circulation
1. Oxygenated blood from heart to left ventricle to Aorta

2. Deoxygenated blood returns to right atriaum via veins
Pulmonary Arteries
Carry blood to lungs for oxygenated
Pulmonary veins
Carries oxygenated blood from lungs to left atrium of heart
Pulmonary Circulation
1. Deoxygenated blood from right ventricle to pulmonary arteries.

2. Blood to lungs for oxygenated

3. Oxygenated blood from lungs to left atrium of heart by pulmonary veins
Lymphatic System
1. Lymphatic Organs
2. Lymphatic Vessels
Lymphatic Organs
*Lymph Nodes
*Thymus
*Spleen
*Tonsils
*Lymphatic Tissue in the intestines
Primary Function of Lymphatic Organs
Protect and cleanse of body fluids
Lymph Nodes- Locations
1. Cervical
2. Axillary
3. Mediastinal
4. Inguinal
Function of Lymph Nodes
*Filters that remove foreign material such as bacteria, virus and cancer cells

*Produce Lymphocytes that function in immune system
Thymus
*Primary lymphatic organ

*Peak levels in adolescent only

*T-Cells
Spleen
*Destroys worn out RBC's

*Removes & Destroys bacteria, virus and blood debris

*Produces RBC's in Embryo & blood less
Tonsils
1. Palatine Tonsil- Mouth 'tonsil'
2. Pharyngeal Tonsil- adenoids
3. Tubal Tonsil- nasopharynx
4. Lingual Tonsil- tongue

FUNCTION: Trap & destroy bacteria, viruses & foreign pathogens come through mouth & nose
Intestinal Lymphatic Tissue
Protect the body from foreign pathogens
Lymphatic Vessels
1. Thoracic Duct- large
2. Right Lymphatic Duct- 2nd largest

*Pick up proteins, fats, etc. leaked from blood and return to blood stream
Lymphatic Fluid Circulation
Left Sublcavian Vein vs. Right Sublcavian Vein
Chyle
*Lymphatic fluid

*Milky
Left Subclavian Vein
*Lower extremities

*Abdomen

*Left head & neck

*Left upper extremity

*Left thorax

***Thoracic Duct empties into Left sublcavian
Right Subclavian Vein
*Right head & neck

*Right upper extremity

*Right thorax

***Right Lymphatic Duct drains to right subclavian
Lower Extremity
1. Pelvic Girdle
2. Thigh
3. Leg
4. Foot
Foot
*7 tarsal
*5 metatarsals
*14 Phalanges
Sacroilliac Joint
1. Anterior Synovial Joint
2. Posterior Fibrous Joint