Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
The scientific study of life.
Biosphere (H)
Consists of all of the environments on Earth that are inhabited by life. Includes most regions of land; most bodies of water; and the atmosphere. (H)
At the top of the levels of Biological Organization.
Ecosystem (H)
Consists of all living things in a particular area, along with all non-living components of the environment with which it interacts, such as soil, water, atmospheric gases, and light. (H)
All of these combined make up the biosphere.
Community (H)
The entire array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem. Includes plants, animals, fungi, and various microorganisms. (H)
The level below an ecosystem.
Populations (H)
Consists of all individuals of a species living within the bounds of a specific area. (H)
The level below a community in the Levels of Biological Organization.
Organisms (H)
Individual living things. (H)
The level below a population in the Levels of Biological Organization.
Organs and Organ Systems (H)
A body part consisting of two or more tissues. (H)
The level below an organism in the Levels of Biological Organization.
Tissues (H)
A group of similar cells, making up an organ. (H)
The level below an organ in the Levels of Biological Organization.
Cells (H)
Life's fundamental unit of structure and function. These are combined to make tissues. (H)
The level below a tissue in the Levels of Biological Organization.
Organelles (H)
Various functional components that make up cells. (H)
The level below a cell in the Levels of Biological Organization.
Molecules (H)
A chemical structure consisting of two or more small chemical units called atoms. (H)
The level below an organelle in the Levels of Biological Organization.
Plants and other photosynthetic organisms that convert light energy to chemical energy.
Organisms such as animals that feed on producers and other consumers.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
Chromosomes that make up the substance for genes.
Units of inheritance that transmit information from parents to offspring.
The entire "library" of genetic instructions that an organism inherits.
Eukaryotic Cell
A cell that is subdivided by internal membranes into various membrane-enclosed organelle, including the chloroplasts.
The entire region between the nucleus and outer membrane of a cell.
Prokaryotic Cell
A cell lacking a membrane enclosed nucleus.
Emergent Properties
In the hierarchy of biological order, components appear that are not present at the level below, are due to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases.
Reducing complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study.
Systems Biology
The model of the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems .
High-throughput Technology
Meta-data-collection methods that can analyze biological materials very rapidly and produce enormous volumes of data.
Extracting useful biological information from the enormous, ever-expanding data sets, such as DNA sequences and lists of protein interactions.
Negative Feedback
The most common form of regulation, in which accumulation of an end product of a process slows that process.
Positive Feedback
When an end product of a biological process speeds up its production.
Individual Variation
When individuals in a population of any species vary in many heritable traits.
(Part of Darwin's theory of Natural Selection)
Overproduction and Competition
A population of any species has the potential to produce far more offspring than will survive to produce offspring of there own.
(Part of Darwin's theory of Natural Selection)
Unequal Reproductive Success
Individuals are unequal in there likelihood of surviving and reproducing. Those individuals with heritable traits best suited to the local environment will generally produce a disproportionately large number of healthy fertile offspring.
(Part of Darwin's theory of Natural Selection)
Evolutionary Adaption
Over the generations, heritable trait the enhance survival and reproductive success tend to increase in frequency among a population's individuals. The population evolves.
(Part of Darwin's theory of Natural Selection)
The search for information and explanation, often focusing on specific questions.
Discovery Science
Describes natural structures and processes through careful observation and analysis of data.
Also called "Descriptive Science."
Inductive Reasoning
Through this types of logic, we derive generalizations based on a large number of specific observations.
Deductive Reasoning
Through this type of logic, we extrapolate specific results we expect to be true. Flows from general to specific.