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39 Cards in this Set

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Random Assignment

Dividing subjects into groups at the beginning of experimental research using a random process so the experimenter can treat the groups as equivalentsci

Science of the sophomore

A term used to refer to the potentially limited external validity of studies based on undergraduate samples usually using the experimental method

Subjects

The case or people used in research projects and in whom variables are measured

Treatment

What the independent variable in experimental research is called

Pretest

The measurement of the dependent variable of an experiment prior to the treatment

Post test

The measurement of the dependent variable in experimental research after the treatment

Experimental group

The group that receives the treatment in experimental research

Control group

The group that does not receive the treatment and experimental research

Deception

When and experimenter lies to her subject about the true nature of an experiment or creates a false impression through his or her actions or the setting

Debrief

When a researcher gives a true explanation of the experiment to subjects after using deceptions

Experimental design

Arranging the parts of an experiment and putting them together

Classical experimental design

An experimental design that has random assigned a control group and experimental group and pretest and post test for each group

Pre-experimental designs

Experimental designs that like random assignment or use shortcuts and are much weaker than the classical experimental design. They may be substituted in situations where experimenter cannot use all the features of a classical experimental design but they have a weaker internal validity

One shot case study

An experimental design with only an experimental group and a post test no pretest

Static group comparison

An experimental design with two groups, no random assignment and only a post test

Quasi experimental designs

Experimental designs that are stronger than prick spare mental designs. They are variations on the classical experiment that and experimenter uses a special situations or when the experimenter has limited control over the independent variable

Interrupted time series

An experimental design in which the dependent variable is measured periodically across money time points and the treatment occurs in the midst of such measures often only once

Equivalent time series design

An experimental design in which there are several repeated pretest, postests, and treatments for one group often over a period of time

Latin square design

An experimental design used to examine whether the order or sequence in which subjects receive multiple versions of the treatment has an effect

Solomon four group design

An experimental design in which subjects are randomly assigned to to control groups and to experimental groups. Only one experimental group and one control group receive a pretest. All 4 groups receive a protest

Factorial design

A type of experimental design that considers the impact of several independent variable's simultaneously

Interaction effect

The effect of two independent variables that operate simultaneously. The affect of the variables together is greater than what would occur from a simple addition of the effects from each. The variables operate together on one another to create an extra boost.

Design notation

The name of the symbol system used to discuss the parts of an experiment and to make diagrams of them

Selection bias

A threat to internal validity when groups in an experiment are not equivalent at the beginning of the experiment

History Effects

A threat to internal validity due to something that occurs and affects the dependent variable during an experiment, but that is unplanned and outside the control of the experimenter

Maturation

A threat to internal validity in experimental research due to natural processes of growth boredom and so on that occur to subjects during experiment and effects of the dependent variable

Testing effect

A pre-test measure that itself affects an experiment. This testing affects internal validity because more than the treatment alone affected the dependent variable

Instrumentation

A threat to reliability occurring when the dependent variable measure changes during the experiment

Mortality

Threats to internal validity do to subjects feeling to participate through the entire experiment

Statistical regression

The problem of extreme values or a tendency for random errors to move group results toward the average

Diffusion of treatment

A threat to internal validity that occurs when the treatments bills over from the experimental group and the control group subjects modify their behaviour because they learn of the treatment

Experimenter expectancy

A researcher may threaten internal validity not by purposeful unethical behaviour but by indirectly communicating desired feelings to the subject

Double blind experiment

A type of experimental research in which neither the subjects nor the person who directly deals with the subjects knows the specifics of the experiment

Placebo

I false treatment or one that has no effect in an experiment. It is sometimes called a sugar pill that I subjects mistakes for a true treatment

Reactivity

The general threat to external validity that arises because subjects are aware that they are in an experiment and being studied

Hawthorne effect

An effect of reactivity named after a famous case in which subjects reacted to the fact that they were in the experiment more than they reacted to the treatment

Laboratory experiment

Experimental research that takes place in an artificial setting over which the experimenter has great control

Field experiment

Experimental research that takes place in a natural setting

Natural experiment

A specific type of quasi-experiment where a researcher can examine the impact of a policy change or similar change in a social system by comparing an outcome of interest before and after such a changes implemented