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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What forms the cremasteric muscles?
internal oblique
What forms the inguinal canal floor?
transversalis muscle
Where does the inguinal ligament come from?
external oblique
What forms where the inguinal ligament splays out to insert in the pubis?
Lacunar ligament
What comes from the transversalis, runs from asis to the pubis and is below the inguinal ligament?
ileopubic tract
Cooper's ligament aka?
pectineal ligament
What runs medial to the cord structures?
vas deferens
What forms Hesselbach's triangle?
rectus muscle, inferior inguinal ligament, and inferior epigastrics
What type of inguinal hernia is most common and comes from a patent processus vaginalis?
indirect hernia
What type of inguinal hernia has a lower risk of incarceration, rare in females, and has a higher recurrence than indirect?
direct hernia
What type of hernia has direct and indirect components?
Pantaloon hernia
What type of hernia occurs when the wall of the hernia sac is an organ?
sliding hernia
What are the 2 most common organs involved in a sliding inguinal hernia in women? and men?
ovaries or fallopian tubes

cecum or sigmoid
3 steps in repair of female with ovary in inguinal canal?
ligate the round ligament, return ovary to peritoneum, perform biopsy if looks abnormal
Inguinal hernia in children is almost always what type? and what is the treatment?
nearly always indirect, just perform high ligation (open sac prior to ligation)
Describe the Bassini repair
approximation of the conjoined tendon and transversalis fascia (superior) to the free edge of the inguinal ligament (inferior)
Describe the McVay repair
approximation of the conjoined tendon and transversalis fascia (superior) to Cooper's ligament (pectineal ligament, inferior)
The McVay repair needs a relaxing incision where?
external abdominal oblique fascia
When is laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair indicated?
bilateral or recurrent
What is the advantage of the Lichtenstein mesh repair?
decreased recurrence due to decreased tension
What is the most common early complication following hernia repair?
urinary retention
What is the infection rate for inguinal hernia repair? and recurrence rate?
2%, 2%
What can occur secondary to dissection of the distal components of the hernia sac causing vessel disruption and thrombosis of spermatic cord veins?
testicular atrophy
Pain after hernia is usually caused by what? What is the tx?
compression of ilioinguinal nerve, local infiltration (diagnostic and therapueutic)
Loss of cremasteric reflex; numbness on ipsilateral penis, scrotum and thigh are sx of what?
ilioinguinal nerve injury
Where is the ilioinguinal nerve injury usually occur?
at the external ring; nerve runs on top of cord
What nerve is usually injured with laparscopic hernia repair?
genitofemoral
What are the two branches of the genitofemoral nerve and what do they do?
genital branch - cremasteric (motor) and scotum (sensory)
femoral branch - uppler lateral thigh (sensory)
What is the tx for cord lipomas?
should be removed
What is in the trapezoid of doom in laparoscopic hernia repairs?
femoral branch of genitofemoral nerve, lateral cutaneous nerve and femoral artery
What are the boundaries of the femoral canal?
Cooper's ligament, inguinal ligament and femoral vein
Where in NAVEL dose femoral hernias occur?
Empty space
Fermoral hernias carry a high risk of incarceration. What may be necessary to divide to reduce bowel?
inguinal ligament
Femoral hernias are usually repaired through what approach? and what two possible tissue repairs?
inguinal approach, McVay or Bassini
What patient population has an increased risk of umbilical hernias?
african americans
Until what age should umbilical hernia repair be delayed?
5 years
Is the risk of incarceration of umbilical hernia in children or adults?
Adults
Where does a Spigelian hernia occur?
lateral border of the rectus muscle through linea semilunaris, almost always inferior to the semicircularis
What is as noncircumferencial incarceration of the nonmesenteric bowel wall?
Richter's hernia
What is an incarcerated Meckel's called?
Littre's
What is an inferior lumbar hernia called? and superior lumbar hernia?
Petit's hernia is inferior lumbar. Grynfeltt's is a superior lumbar hernia
What type of hernia goes through the greater sciatic foramen and has a high rate of strangulation?
Sciatic hernia
What is the tx for obturator hernia?
operative reduction, may need mesh, check other side for similar defect. diagnosis usually made at the time of surgery for small bowel obstruction
What type of hernia is the most likely to recur? what is the most common cause of this hernia?
incisional, inadequate closure
Peristomal hernias can be true of pseudo what is the cause and tx for both?
missed the rectus, need to move and place in rectus muscle
What is the tx for peristomal hernia - prolapse?
keep stoma at the same site, fix mesentery (is in rectus but prolapsing through)
What Fothergill's sign and what can it indicate?
abdominal wall mass more prominent and painful with flexion of the rectus muscle
Tx for rectus sheath hematoma is usually nonoperative. When do you operate?
if expanding
desmoid tumors occur more often in women, are benign but locally invasive and recurr. What syndrome are they associated with?
Gardner's
What is the tx for desmoid tumor?
Wide local incision, if involving small bowel, excision may not be indicated -> often not completely resectable and can cause worsening fibrosis
What are 2 possible medical treatments for desmoid tumors?
NSAIDs and antiestrogens
Retroperitoneal fibrosis can occur with hypersensitivity to what?
methysergide (former migraine/cluster headache tx)
What are the sx of retroperitoneal fibrosis and what is the most sensitive text?
trapped ureters and lymphatic obstruction, IVP is most sensitive
Tx for retroperitoneal fibrosis includes what medical tx? or what procedure if infection is present?
steroids, nephrostomy if infection is present
What is the indication for surgery in retroperitoneal fibriosis? and what is done in the surgery?
surgery if renal function becomes compromised, free up ureters and wrap in omentum
Of the primary mesenteric tumors, most are cystic. Where are malignant tumors located? and benign?
malignant closer to the root of the mesentery, benign more peripheral
Most solid tumors of the mesentery are benign. What two malignant types?
liposcarcoma, leiomyosarcoma
Retroperitoneal tumors, 15% in children, others in 5th-6th decade. Malignant > benign. What are the #1 and #2 malignant retroperitoneal tumors?
#1 lymphoma, #2 liposarcoma
Retropertoneal sarcomas what % are resectable? what is the 5 year survival rate?
<25%, 10%
Retroperitoneal sarcomas have a pseudocapsule but cannot shell out -> leave residual tumor. Where do the mets go?
to the lung
What is the most common omental solid tumor?
metastatic disease
Omentectomy for metastatic cancer has a role for some cancers such as ovarian CA. Omental cysts are usually asymptomatic, can ungergo torsion. Primary solid omental tumors are rate 1/3 maligant. What is the dx and tx?
No biopsy -> can bleed. Tx: resection
Most drugs are not removed with peritoneal dialysis: NH3, Ca, Fe and lead are removed. What is the rate saline is absorbed through the peritoneal membrane?
35 cc/hr
CO2 pneumoperitoneum, cardiopulmonary dysfunction can occur with intra-abdominal pressure > ?
20
What are the sx of CO2 embolus? the tx?
sudden rise in ETCO2, hypotension; head down, turn patient to the left
What is the difference in fibroblast ingrowth with Gore-Tex (PTFE) and Dacron (polypropylene)?
Gore-Tex (PTFE) – cannot get fibroblast ingrowth
Dacron (polypropylene) – allows fibroblast ingrowth
What is the incidence of vascular or bowel injury with Veress needle or trocar?
0.1%