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29 Cards in this Set

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How to test central vision

the ability to see small details (read printed material)

How to test distant vision

Snellen chart, test without corrective lenses first, have patient sit or stand 20 feet away from chart, and have patient read all the letters beginning at any line with both eyes open, then read line with each eye separately (avoid applying pressure to eye when covering it up) note the smallest line patient is able to read all letters correct and record visual acuity. if unable to read use E chart where patient tells which way letter is pointing

How to test near vision

asking patient to read a handheld card containing a vision screening chart. Patient holds card 12 1/2 to 14 inches from the eyes and reads the smallest line possible

How many small muscles guide the extraocular movements of each eye, what nerves affect it, and what are they called

six


Inferior oblique (CN II)


superior rectus (CN II)


lateral rectus (CN VI)


inferior rectus (CN III)


Superior oblique (CN IV)


Medial rectus (CN III)

How to assess extraocular movements

Patient sits or stands and the nurse faces the patient 2 feet away. The nurse holds a finger at a comfortable distance from the patient's eyes. While the patient maintains his or her head in a fixed position facing forward, the nurse directs him or her to follow with the eyes only as the nurse's finger moves to the right. left. and diagonally up and down to the left and right.

Nystagmus

an involuntary, rhythmical oscillation of the eyes, occurs as a result of local injury to eye muscles and supporting structures or a disorder of the cranial nerves innervating the muscles

How to assess visual fields

have patient look straight ahead, stand or sit 2 feet away at eye level. The patient closes or covers one eye and looks at your eye directly opposite. You close your opposite eye. Then move a finger equidistant between you and the patient outside the field of vision and slowly bring it back into the visual field. The patient reports when he or she is able to see the finger. if you see the finger before the patient does a portion of the patient's visual field is reduced

exopththalmos and what does it indicate

bulging eyes


hyperthyroidism

strabismus and indication

crossed eyes


neuromuscular injury or inherited abnormalities

what causes abnormal eye protrusion

tumors or inflammation of the orbit

what assessment about eyebrows can reveal hypothyroidism

coarseness of hair and failure to extend beyond the temporal canthus

Aging causes loss of what part of the eyebrow

lateral third

inability to move the eyebrows indicate what

facial nerve paralysis (CN VII)

ptosis and caused by what

abnormal drooping of the lid over the pupil caused by edema or impairment of the third cranial nerve

In an older adult ptosis results from what

loss of elasticity that accompanies old age

Enctropion sometimes leads to the lashes of the lid irritating the what and what increasing what

conjunctive and cornea, increasing the risk of infection

upper lid edema and erythema indicate what

edema indicates allergies or heart or kidney failure


redness inflammation or infection

Failure to close lids result in what and is common with what type of patients

cornea drying common in unconscious or those with facial nerve paralysis

How often does someone blink normallly

up to 20 times per minute

Lacrimal gland should be palpated for what because sometimes the site of what

edema and redness


site of tumors or infection

Sclerae become pigmented and appear what if liver disease is present

yellow or green

Conjuctivitis

The presence of redness indicates an allergic or infection


high contagious can be spread through the crusty drainage that collects on eyelid margins from one eye to the other.

Arcus senilis

a thin white ring along the margin of the iris is common with aging but abnormal in anyone under age 40

cloudy pupils indicate what

cataracts

dilated pupils result from what

glaucoma, trauma, neurological disorders, eye medications, or withdrawal from opioids.

Constricted pupils result from what

inflammation of the iris or use of drugs (morphine, cocaine, pilocarpine)

pinpoint pupils are a sign of what

opiod intoxication

Shining a beam of light through the pupil and onto the retina stimulates what nerve causing the muscles of the irsi to what

third cranial nerve to constrict

internal eye structures patients in greatest need of an examination are those with what and who can do this test

diabetes, hypertension and intracranial disorders


advanced nurse practitioners