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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The four functions of the respiratory systems are:
Gas exchange
Protection from pollutants and pathogens
Acid/Base Balance
Voice Production
External vs Internal Respiration
Gas exchange btwn lungs & bld
Gas xchg btwn blood & cells
Lungs & Bld = external
Bld & cells = internal
What acts via β2 receptors to relax smooth muscle?
Give 1 example
Sympathetics
Albuterol for asthma
What acts via acetylcholine (muscarinic) receptors to constrict smooth muscle?
Parasympathetics
What inibits acetylcholine receptors?
Muscarinic antagonists
What is Vt?
Tidal volume-air inspired or expired during normal respiration
500mL
What is IRV
Inspiratory reserve volume
~3000mL
amt of air that can be inpired at the end of a normal inspiration
What is ERV
Expiratory reserve volume- amt of air that can be expired at the end of a normal expiration
~1000mL
What is RV
Can it be measured using a spirometer?
Residual volume
Amt remaining in the lungs after a force expiration
No
Total lung capacity
Vt + IRV + ERV + RV
Vital capacity
Vt+IRV+ERV
Total lung capacity
Vt + IRV + ERV + RV
Fx residual capacity?
ERV+RV
Inspiratory capacity
IRV, Vt
Anatomical dead space, is the volume of air in the conducting zone. If a person weighs 200lbs, how big is their anatomical dead space?
200mL
Alveolar dead space, in a healthy person, ie alveoli that don't participate in gas exchange
is equal to zero
Physiological dead space is the sum of alveolar dead spaced and anatomical dead space. When is this sum larger than anatomical dead space?
Only in pathology
What is the measure of how volume changes due to chg in pressure?
Compliance
What is a normal value of compliance?
0.13liters/cmH2O
What if compliance is much lower or much higher?
Pathology
In emphasema is it is easier to inflate the lung tissue due to:
Decreased elastase
and causes increased compliance
Compliance, the change in volume divided by the change in pressure. What helps compliance?
Surfactant from Type II Pneumocytes
In emphysema lung volumes increase as does...
compliance
Fibrosis, a stiffening of the lung tissue, causes
decreased compliance and decreased lung volume
Infant respiratory distress syndrome is caused by
lack of surfactant, which can cause the lungs to collapse.
What causes the pressure change to move air in the lungs?
Volume change due to inpiratory muscles
Asthma, Emphysema, Fibrosis
Which will have normal FVC?
Which will have an increased FVC?
Which will have a decreased FVC?
None

Emphasema

Asthma and Fibrosis
What will be the effects on FEV1 for Asthma, Emphysema, Fibrosis?
Decreased FEV1: Emphysema and asthma, and fibrosis
What is more soluble in water/blood? Water or CO2?
CO2
What is SaO2?
percent of Hb fully saturated with O2
O2 capacity?
02 content?
greatest amt of O2 that can be carried in 100mL of blood

amt of O2carried in 100mL of blood
What is the strongest stimulus for respiration?
Build up of CO2
Where is the respiratory center that shapes breathing?
The medulla
Where is the respiratory center that controls voluntary aspects of breathing?
Emotional aspects of breathing?
Cerebral Cortex

Hypothalamus
The _________ Effect, is when more CO2 will be released from Hb due to more O2 being bound
Haldane
Compliance in emphysema will typically increase
2x
Normally Palv is less than Patm, otherwise:
atelectasis, lung colapse