Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/73

Click to flip

73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the functions of bone?
1) Mechanical support
2) Protection
3)Reservoir of calcium and phosphate
4) locomotion
5) hearing
6) hematopoiesis
What are the phagocytic-function type cell in bones that is present where bone is damaged?
osteoclasts
what are the two precursors of osteocyte?
osteoprogenitor cells --> osteoblast
How is bone different from cartilage?
1) Not flexible, its firm
2) Has vascular supplies (blood vessels)
* In cartilage, get its supplies by diffusion. In bones, due to its mineralized nature, need to have blood vessels for nutrients.
What are the two type of bone tissues, where they are at, and what they consist of.
1) Compact (dense): outside of bone with high level of ECM
2) Spongy (cancellous): inside of bone, meshwork of trabeculae, spaces filled with blood vessels and bone marrow.
What are the four classifications of bones? Examples of where they can be found and describe them/
1) Long bones: 1 longer dimension (tibia, metacarpels)
2) Short bones: length=diameter (carpal bones of hand)
3) flat bones: thin, plate-like (skull, sternum)
4) Irregular bones: verterbrae
Where can you find the periosteum and where can you not find it?
Periosteum = outer covering of bones except where its articulate with another bone (articular cartilage)
Where can you find osteoprogenitor cells? Specific named for this location?
How thick is it?
In the inner layer of periosteum. Inner layer called: endosteum.
one cell layer thick
What is the precursor of osteoblast cells?
osteoprogenitor
What is the relationship and function of osteoblasts and osteocytes?
Osteoblasts are precursor to osteocytes.
Osteoblasts secretes collagens and unminneralized matrix called Osteoids.
Became osteocytes when it has completely surrounded itself in the secreted matrix. Osteocytes are responsible for depositing and absorbing the matrix. They can synthesize/degraded bone matrix base on homeostasis
How do osteocytes communicated with each other?
Via canaliculi processes that forms gap junction with other osteocytes extended canalicul processes.
Describe the mineralization process of bones.
Key terms: concentration of Ca++, PO4-, Osteocalcin, positive feedback, stimulation of osteoclasts, secretion of alkaline phosphatase,secretion of matrix vessicles and its function, crystallization of CaPO4, formation and deposition of hydroxyapatite
in order for mineralization to occur, need high level of Ca2+ and PO4- than normal threshold level.
1) Osteocalcin binds to Ca2+ = high concentration of Ca2+
2) High Ca2+ --> osteoblasts to secrete alkaline phosphatase increasing PO4-
3) Positive feedback- the higher the level of Ca2+, the higher the level of PO4-.
4) Osteoblast then secretes matrix vesicles into bone matrix that accumulates Ca2+ and cleaves PO4-.
5) Inside the vessicle, Ca2+ and PO4- crystallized -> initiate mineralization by formation and deposition of hydroxyapatite.
6) Once hydroxyapatite is formed and released, grow rapidly= wave of mineralization.
Are osteoclast derived from osteoprogenitor cell?
No. It is derived from bone marrow.
What are osteoclasts unique features?
1- Huge
2- Multinucleated.
3- Acidophilic
What are osteoclasts' function? Where is it founded?
Function: breakdown matrix- eating away the bones making dents.
Found in: Howship's lacuna (site of breakdown/ bites)
Study the bone's hormones comparison chart
see excel: Histology chart
What are the two type of bone ossifications? How do they differed?
1) Intramembranous ossification:
- flat bones (ex. skulls and ribs)
- develop from mesenchymal cells
2) Endochondral ossification-
- long bones (ex. arms, legs)
- growth of cartilage templates into bones
How does intramembraneous ossification works?
1) mesenchymal cells condensed together, get aggregated and differentiated into osteoblasts.
2) osteoblast synthesized and secrete osteoid- which mineralized around the osteoblasts which became osteocytes
What is appositional growth?
process of intramembraneous ossification where the osteoblast secretes and surround itself with osteoids-> become an osteocytes. By the continual secretion of osteoids, bone growths occurred.
Label and describe the steps shown in fig. 8.17
Taken from lecture slide:
A) cartilage model
B) Bony collar formed
Calcified cartilage
Cavity formed
Invasion of blood vessels
Primary ossification center
cartilage spicules --> bones
C) Secondary ossification center
cartilagenous Epiphyseal plate
E) Proliferation and reabsorption in epiphyseal plate.
What happens when there the body has low blood calcium or elevated blood calcium?
1) In low blood calcium, PTH- parathyroid hormones increase to stimulate the osteoclasts-> which helps release Ca+ into blood.
2) In elevated blood Ca+, calcitonin increases to inhibit PTH effects on osteoclasts-which help lower blood Ca+ by prevent Ca+ release into blood.
Which regions of the bones do Growth hormone and IGF-1 (Insulin-like growth factor) effects?
1) GH stimulates the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into osteoblast- occur between the in the zone of reabsorption in between the metaphysis (??). Osteoprogenitor originated from the bone-marrow in the diaphysis.
2) IGF stimulates the proliferation of chondrocytes at the epiphyseal plate
What happens when you have excess growth hormones- in children vs adults??
1) In children, its call gigantism. Grow really tall due to expansion of the epiphyseal plate (growth plate).
Type of growth: can be both appositional AND endochondral
2) In adults, its called acromegaly. At this stage, growth plate has disappear already due to the convergence. Only appositional intramembraneous growth
What is the estrogens role in bone growth?
Pre-puberty: proliferation of growth plate
Post-puberty: closure of growth plate
Predict what happens to individuals who either cannot make estrogens or lack estrogens receptors?
Ephiphyseal growth plate cannot fused and therefore, the individual will keep growing
MUSCLES
MUSCLES TISSUE
What are the three types of muscle tissues?
1) Skeletal
2) Smooth
3) Cardiac
What is the primarily function of muscles?
Force generation
Study the comparison chart between skeletal, cardiac, smooth
in Excel
*SKELETAL MUSCLES
SKELETAL MUSCLES
What makes skeletal muscles different from the other muscles (cardiac and smooth)?
1) multinucleated
2) can be very long
3) regenerative capability due to presence of satellite cells in the basal lamina
What held skeletal muscle together?
(what covers the individual muscle fibers, covering a group of individual muscle fibers (fascicle), and what covers groups of fasciles?
CONNECTIVE TISSUES
1) Endomysium covers individual muscle fibers
2) perimysium covers groups of individual fibers
3) epimysium covers several group of fascicles
How do muscles get their nutrient supplys from blood vessels and nerves?
Blood vessels and nerve travels in the connective tissues to transport materials to/from muscles.
Be sure to know the structure of muscle myofibril:
A band, I band, H band, M line, Z line/disk, sarcomere
see notes
A-band is a ________ filament made of (actin or myosin) in contrast to the I-band which is a ___________ filament made of (actin or myosin)
A-band is a THICK filament made of MYOSIN.
I-band is a THIN filament made of ACTIN
What are the components of thin actin filaments and thick myosin filaments?
1) G-actin --> double helix F-actin
2) Tropomyosin
3) Troponin
What are the functions of accessories proteins? Name some of them.
Function: maintain precise alignment of thin and thick filaments.
titin, alpha-actinin, nebulin, tropomodulin, desmin, myomesin, C protein, dystrophin
When a muscle contracts, each ________ shortens and becomes thicker, but ________ remains the same length.
!) sacromere
2) myofilaments
* during contraction, sarcomere and I band shorten, A-band remains the same length Overlap of thin and thick filaments cause the sacromere to shorten and thicken
What is muscle contraction dependent on the concentration of what ions?
Ca+
In muscle, where is the reservoir for Ca+?
In the terminal cisterna of the sacroplasmic reticulum surrounding the myofibrils.
What are the components of triads?
terminal cisterna (reservoirs of Ca+) and T-tubules ( sensing the depolarization of the plasma membrane in muscles to regulate the release of Ca+)
How are Ca+ release into muscles to start contraction?
Nerve impulse arriving at neuromuscular junction --> plasma membrane depolarize --> Na+ channel open (influxed of Na+). This rapidly spread throughout the whole muscle causing depolariztion, sense by voltage-sensor protein on T system -->open gated Ca+ channel, release of Ca+- initiate the binding of myosin to actin by changing the conformation of tropomyosin to unblock the binding site.
What does the intercalacted disk in the cardiac muscles show?
junctions between cardiac muscle cells
NERVOUS TISSUE
NERVOUS TISSUE
What are the functions of the nervous system?
1) input from sensory receptors
2) integration and processing of signals
3) output to effector cells
4) Behavior
The nervous system is divided into two parts. What are the two subdivision?
1) Central nervous system (CNS)
2) Peripheral Nervous system (PNS)
What are the 3 main structure of a neuron?
Dendrites, cell body, axon
Where are action potential generated?
At the axon hillock- between the axon and the cell body
What are the functions of cell body, dendrites, and axon?
Cell body: synthesize proteins
Dendrites: received information
Axon: send information
Where do neurons communicate with each other?
At synaptic cleft between presynaptic neuron and postsynaptic neuron.
What are the two types of synaptic communication?
1) Chemical synapses: conductions of impulse achieved by release of chemical substances
2) Electrical synapses: movements of ions between cells via gap junction as way of spreading electrical current.
What is axonal transport system? What is the purpose of it? What directions does it go in?
Axonal transport system: is a mode of intracellular communication- used to transport synthesized material from the nerve cell body to the nerve's process (dendrites / axons).

Direction: bidirectional system
What role does SNARE protein plays in chemical transmission?
SNARE protein located at the axon terminal binds to presynaptic vesicle, facilitate its fusion with the presynaptic membrance for the neurotransmitter release.
How does "Botox" (Botulinum toxin) works?
It prevent the release of neurotransmitter by cleaving the SNARE proteins at the presynaptic axon terminal.
What cells synthesize the myelin sheath in CNS and in PNS?
In CNS- oligodendrocytes
In PNS- Schwann cell
What is the advantage in having a myelin sheath?
Those with myelineated sheath can conduct signals much faster- increase efficiency.
What is the Node of Ranvier?
sections of unmyelinated axons where ion channels are concentrated.
What cause multiple Sclerosis?
Damage to the myelin sheath which cause interrupted action potential transmission- hard to diagnose.
What happens when there is damaged to the axon of a neuron?
Transport is interrupted. Whole distal part died.., since target cell not stimulated, will be redistributed and reduce. Input will retracted --> muscle atrophy due to lack of stimulation.
Compare regeneration of damaged neurons in CNS and PNS
In PNS, regeneration is possible due to the fact the Schwann cells can divide and develope bridge connecting damaged and become healthy from there. If reconnection cannot be made, muscle remains atrophic.
In CNS, regeneration is not inhibited by glial scar formation and growth-inhibiting proteins.
What are some ways to improve CNS regeneration?
1) Prevent neuronal death by limited inflammatory response (ice?)
2) Induce CNS axon growth by implanting Schwann cells or PNS nerve at site
3) Overcome environmental factos by preventing scar formation or block activity of growth-inhibiting proteins.
Define withdrawal reflex.
A type of reflex that can function without ascending brain activity
what are the three layers of menings?
1) dura mater: dense connective tissues
2) arachnoid: loose connective tissue
3) pia mater: ensheathes blood vessels
What are the functions of cerebral spinal fluid?
"shock absorber"
cushion brain from skull
transportation of nutrients and waste
What produced CSF?
Choroid plexus- in combination with the neighboring ependymal cell to produce cerebral fluid.
What is hydrocephalus? How does it arise? How to treat it?
* hydrocephalus is due to excess CSF accumulation in the brain.
* Cause by block of CSF flow or overproduction of CSF
* can be treated by shunting excess CSF into abdominal cavity
What is meningitis?
infection or inflammation of the meninges and CSF, cause by virus, bacteria
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS
What are the three layers of arteries and veins from lumen outward and their respective components?
1) Tunica intima:squamous epithelium
2)tunica media: smooth muscle
3) tunica adventitia: connective tissues
Be familiar with the three types of arteries, veins, and capillaries.
Arteries:
1) Elastic (large)
2) Muscular (med)
3) Arteriole (small)

Veins:
1) large veins
2) medium veins
3) venules

Capillaries:
1) Contiunuous
2) Fenestrated
3) discontinuous
Name 5 kinds of glial cells and their functions.
1) Schwann cells / Satelitte cell (PNS_
2) Oligodendrocytes (CNS)
3)Ependymal cells (CNS)- CSF fluid
4) Astrocytes (CNS)- contribute to brain blood barrier
5) Microglia (CNS & PNS)-
What are the two types of astrocytes?
1) protoplasmic -in grey matter
2) fibrous astrocytes - in white matter
Paracrine signaling vs autocrine signaling
* Local- diffues via interstial fluid
* via receptors