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111 Cards in this Set

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Definition: the pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span

*involves growth as well as decline brought on by age and dying


Views development as lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and contextual, and as a process that involves growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss.


What is the life expectancy in the US?

78 years of age

Development has biological, cognitive, and socioemotional dimensions

Multidimensional approach

People can be affected in different ways from different directions-example: a child learning a language easily at a young age and having trouble at a later age

Multidirectional approach

Capacity for change-ability to bounce back/change


Various disciplines -psychology, sociology, anthropology- all share an interest in unlocking the mysteries of development

Multidisciplinary approach

All development occurs within a context or setting-including families, schools, peer groups, churches, cities, and so on.


common to people of a particular generation because of historical circumstances. Ex: baby boomers experienced Cuban missile crisis, the Beatles, and Kennedy assasination

Normative history graded

Unusual occurrences that have a major impact on the lives of individual people-ex: death of a parent, pregnancy, winning the lottery

Nonnormative life event

Definition: The behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a group that are passed on from generation to generation


Produces changes in an individuals physical nature. Genes inherited from parents, development of brain, height and weight gains, changes in motor skills hormonal changes are all what type of process that affect development?

Biological processes and development

changes in the individuals thought, intelligence, and language. Putting together a sentence, memorizing a poem, solving a crossword puzzle all involve what type of processes?

Cognitive processes

Prenatal period

conception to birth


birth to 18-24 months


1 1/2 to 3 years old

Early childhood

3-5 years old

Middle and late childhood

6-11 years old


10 to 12 years old - 18-21 years old

Early adulthood

early twenties through your thirties

Middle adulthood

40-60 years old

Late adulthood

60's or 70's until death

*longest span of life

growth from single cell to complete organism in 9 months

prenatal period

time of extreme dependance on adults, psychological activities are just beginning


A transitional period between infancy and next period


the preschool years, spend many hours playing with peers, become more self sufficient and develop readiness skills

early childhood

Time that corresponds to the elementary school years, master reading, writing, and arithmetic

Middle and late childhood

Time of rapid physical changes, changes in body contour, pursuit of independence and identity are preeminent . Thought is more logical and abstract. More time spent outside of the family


Time of establishing personal and economical independence, advancing a career, selecting a mate, starting a family

Middle adulthood

Time of review, retirement, adjusting to new social roles, and diminishing strength and health.

Late adulthood

Definition: an individuals adaptive capacities compared with those of the same chronological age

Psychological age

Definition: the number of years that have elapsed since birth

Chronological age

Influence of genes that we inherit


The environmental influences such as family, school, community


Definition: specific assertions and predictions that can be tested


5 stages of Freud's psychosexual stages

Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, and genital

According to this theorist, eight stages unfold as we go through life and each stage confronts individuals with a crisis that must be resolved

Erikson's theory of development

Theory stating that children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development:

Sensorimotor, pre operational, concrete operational, formal operational

Piaget's four stages of cognitive development

A theory that suggests a sociocultural cognitive theory that emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development

*social interaction with adults is indispensable

Vygotsky's theory

A theory that states through operant conditioning the consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior's occurrence. Rewarding stimulus is more likely to occur and punishing stimulus less likely to occur

Skinner's theory-operant conditioning

Enviornmental systems theory that focuses on five environmental systems theory that focuses on five environmental systems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem

Brofenbrenner's ecological theory

What are the 3 types of research?

Descriptive, correlational, and experimental

Experimental vs control groups

Experimental is a group whose experience can be manipulated.

Control group serves as a baseline against which the effects of the manipulated condition can be compared.

A research strategy that simultaneously compares individuals of different ages

Cross-sectional approach

A research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more

Longitudinal approach

A research these effect are due to a persons time of birth, era, or generation, but not to actual age

Cohort effects

A preconceived notion about the abilities of women and men that prevented individuals from pursuing their own interests

Gender bias

DEF: using an ethnic label such as african-american or latino in a superficial way that portrays an ethnic group as being more homogenous than it really is. Ex: mexicans being classified as latinos

Ethnic gloss

A naturalist that argued that survivors are better adapted to their world than non survivors and had a strong view on evolution.

Charles Darwin

Def: emphasizes importance of adaptation, reproduction, and survival of the fittest in shaping behavior

Evolutionary psychology

DEF: concept of evolutionary psychology to understand human development. Ex: extended childhood period may have evolved because humans require longer to develop a large brain

Evolutionary developmental psychology

Def: Information that helps us grow from a single cell to a person made of trillions of cells

Genetic code

DEF: a complex molecule that has a double helix shape like a spiral staircase and contains genetic information


DEF: units of hereditary information, short segments of DNA Help cells reproduce themselves and and assemble proteins


Ova and sperm are referred to as what?


Cellular reproduction in which the cells's nucleus reproduce duplicates itself with two new cells being formed. Each cell contains same DNA as parent cell


How many pairs of chromosomes do we have ?


Def: when sperm and egg fertilize and fuze into a single cell -it is called what ?

A zygote

Chromosomes and sex determination

Females have 2 X chromosomes and males have XY -presence of a y chromosome makes a person male rather than female -difference is found on the 23rd pair

Identical/monozygotic twins

Have same genotype

-single zygote that splits into same identical replica

Fraternal/dizygotic twins

2 ova, 2 sperms

-only have half of their genes in common

-2 zygotes, different sperm, genetically no more in common than with regular siblings

Def: makes the individual less vulnerable to certain diseases and more likely to live to an older age

Longevity genes

The physical expression of someone gene's -observable characteristics


DEF: one pair of genes that always exerts its effects overriding the potential influence of the other gene

Dominant-recessive genes

When the expression of a gene has different effects depending on whether the mother or the father passed on the gene. Chemical process prevents one member of the gene from expressing itself

genetic imprinting

An extra copy of chromosome 21

Downs syndrome

An extra X chromosome that causes physical abnormalities. Occurs in males making them XXY instead of XY. Have underdeveloped testes, enlarged breasts and become tall

Klinefelter syndrome

Genetic disorder that results from abnormality in the X chromosome which becomes constricted and often breaks

Fragile X syndrome

A genetic disorder which an individual cannot properly metabolize phenylalanine

Phenylketonouria (PKU)

*gene linked abnormality- delayed blood clotting causes internal and external bleeding


A neurological condition in which the infants head is smaller than heads of other children and may cause developmental issues


A disk shaped group of tissues in which small blood vessels from the mother and the offspring intertwine but do not join


What are the risks of IVF?

multiples and low birth weight

A social and legal process that establishes a parent-child relationship between persons unrelated at birth


The field that seeks to discover the influence of heredity and environment on individual differences in human traits and developments

Behavior genetics

Occurs because biological parents who are genetically related to the child provide a rearing environment for the child.

Passive genotype-environment correlations

A child's unique experiences both within the family and outside the family that are not shared with a sibling.

Nonshared environmental experiences

A view that states development reflects an ongoing bidirectional interchange between heredity and environment

Epigenetic view

What is the length of prenatal development ?

Between 266 and 280 days

What are the 3 periods of prenatal devlopment?

Germinal, Embryonic, and Fetal

How long does the germinal period last?

from conception to 2 weeks

How long does the embryonic period last ?

2-8 weeks after conception

How long does the fetal period last?

from 2 months of conception to birth (about 7 months long)

DEF: an inner mass of cells that will eventually develop into the embryo


The (embyros) middle layer, which will become the circulatory system, bones, muscles, excretory system, and reproductive system


What are the 3 life support systems of the embryo?

Amnion, umbilical cord, and placenta

A clear fluid which the developing embryo floats

Amniotic fluid

What is the measurement of the fetus at end of fourth month?

6 inches

What is the age of viability ?

22 weeks

What is the average weight and length of baby born in US ?

7.5 pounds and 20 inches

How many neurons do we have on average when we are born?

100 billion

What is the definition of a teratogen?

an agent that can cause birth defects or alter behavioral and cognitive outcomes

Which of the 3 prenatal periods is baby most at risk from teratogens?


What is the recommended alcohol intake during pregnancy?

not recommended

What are the risks of smoking during pregnancy?

-preterm low birth rates

-fetal and neonatal deaths

-respiratory problems


What are the effects of heroin during pregnancy?

Withdrawal symptoms, tremors, irritability, abnormal crying, disturbed sleep, and impaired motor control

A disease that can cause prenatal defects; including spontaneous abortion and stillbirth

Rubella (german measles)

What are the effects of genital herpes during delivery?

one third die, one fourth become brain damaged, possible infection of the infant

What are the effects of breast feeding and AIDS ?

A mother can pass AIDS to her baby through her breast milk-a problem in developing countries

What are some of the issues for women with gestational diabetes?

Very large infants, infants are at risk for diabetes themselves.

Effects of poor eating habits on fetus

Malnourished mothers-malformed baby

obeses mom-baby with hypertension, diabetes, respiratory complications, infections in mom, preterm delivery

What are effects of second hand smoke on fetus?

miscarriage, low birth weight, early birth, learning defects, and SIDS

How many stages are there in the birth process?

3 stages

DEF: a regional anesthesia that numbs the women's body from the waist down

Epidural block

What is it called when the baby's butt is first to come out?

Breech position

DEF: when the baby is removed surgically from mom's uterus

Cesarean section

What is the Apgar Test?

used to assess baby's health at one and five minutes after birth. Tests; heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, body color, and reflex irritability

DEF: typically performed within 24 hours to 36 hours after birth. Also used as a sensitivity index of neurological competence, reflexes, and reaction to people and objects

Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale

when is a baby considered premature, if born before which week in pregnancy?

37 weeks

What percent of preterm children are enrolled in special education?

50 percent

What is kangaroo care?

Skin to skin contact held against parents bare chest