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41 Cards in this Set

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Define Psychology

science of behavior and mental processes

Why is Psychology a science?

It applies the scientific model in testing claims and beliefs in the light of available evidence

Structuralism

Wilhelm Wundt & Edward Titchener - break down mental exp. into component parts - sensations, perceptions, and feelings

Functionalism

William James - explain our behavior in terms of the role it serves in helping us adapt to the environment.

Behaviorism

John Watson - psychology should limit itself to observable phenomena - namely, behavior

Gestalt Psychology

Max Wertheimer - belief that the brain structures our perceptions of the world in terms of organized patterns or wholes

Psychoanalysis

Sigmund Freud - the role of underlying motives and conflicts in determining human behavior

6 major contemporary perspectives

behavioral, psychodynamic, humanistic, physiological, cognitive, sociocultural

Behavioral perspective

focuses on observable behavior and the influences of learning processes in behavior.

Psychodynamic perspective

based on Freud holds that our behavior & personalities are shaped by unconscious motives & conflicts that lie outside the range of ordinary awareness.

Humanistic perspective

views of Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow emphasized the importance of subjective conscious experience & personal freedom & responsibility

Physiological perspective

examines the ways in which behavior & mental experience are influenced by biological processes such as heredity, hormones, & the workings of the brain & other parts of the nervous system

Cognitive perspective

focuses on mental processes that allow us to gain knowledge about ourselves & the world

Sociocultural perspective

examines how our behavior & attitudes are shaped by social & cultural influences

Basic vs applied research

Basic - acquiring knowledge even if no direct application


Applied - attempts to find solutions to specific problems

Experimental psychologists

apply experimental methods to the study of behavior & mental processes


Comparative - study behavioral similarities & differences among animal species


Physiological - biological bases of behavior

Clinical Psychologists

evaluate & treat people w/ mental or psychological disorders (depression & anxiety)

Counseling Psychologists

help people clarify their goals & make life decisions or find ways of overcoming problems in various areas of their lives

School psychologists

evaluate & assist children w/ learning problems or other special needs

Educational psychologists

study issues relating to the measurement of intelligence & the processes involved in educational or academic achievement

Developmental psychologists

focus on processes involving physical cognitive, social, & personality development

Personality psychologists

study the psychological characteristics & behaviors that distinguish us as individuals & lead us to act consistently over time

Social psychologists

study group or social influences on behavior & attitude

Environmental psychologists

study relationships between the physical environment & behavior

Industrial/Organizational psychologists

study people's behavior at work

Health psychologists

focus on the relationship between psychological factors & physical health

Consumer psychologists

study why people purchase particular products & brands

who founded the APA and when? Growth

G. Stanley Hall in 1892, then 31 now 150,000

Emerging fields of psychology

Neuro - study relationships between the brain & behavior


Gero - focus on psychological processes involved in aging


Forensic - involved in the application of psychology to the legal system


Sport - apply psychology to understanding & improving athletic performanc

1st African American doctorate in psychology

Gilbert Jones 1909

1st women PhD in psychology

Margaret Washburn 1894

Scientific Method (Q.H.T.C)

careful observation & use of experimental methods


Q- develop a research question


H - frame the question in the form of a hypothesis


T - gather evidence to test the hypothesis


C - draw a conclusion about the hypothesis

empirical approach

developing knowledge based on evaluating evidence gathered from experiments & careful observation

5 research methods

case study, survey, naturalistic observation, correlational and experimental

case study method

in-depth study of one or more individuals


S - lots of info, lead to testable hypo


W - lack rigorous controls (memories can be distorted, withhold important info, deceive researcher, interviewers/observers may hear or see only what they want)

survey method

structured interviews or questionnaires are used to gather information about groups of people


S - great way to get a sampling of a population


W - gaps in people's memories, social desirability bias, and volunteer bias

naturalistic observation method

based on careful observation of behavior in natural settings


S - provide important insights into behavior as it occurs under natural conditions


W - lacks controls, preconceived ideas, acting different knowing they are being watched

correlational method

examine relationships between variables, which are expressed in the form of a statistical measure called a correlation coefficient


S - offers clues to underlying causes, increases understanding of relationships between variables


W - limited in specifying underlying causes

Experimental method

involving the manipulation of independent variables & observation or measurement of their effects on dependent variables under controlled conditions





independent/dependent variables

I - manipulates


D - effects or outcomes of an experiment that are believed to be dependent on the values of the independent variables

Ethical practices

- informed consent


- confidentiality


- animals