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51 Cards in this Set

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What are the 5 things that extreme environments are classified based upon.

1. Temperature


2. Moisture


3. pH


4. Salinity


5. Contamination

What are the characteristics of microbes that live in extreme low temperature environments.

They function with minimal energy and the water holds the maximum amount of dissolved oxygen. If there are low O2 concentrations then there will be high H2S concentrations

what is an example of a extreme hot temperature environment and microbial activity in that area

1. Geothermal Hot Springs


2. Thermos aquaticus microbe is molecularly stable and flexible.

What is an example of a UV stressed environment and what are characteristics of the microbes that live there.

1. The Atacona Desert in Chile


2. Limited productivity, The microbial communities hide under rocks and secret Extracellular Polysaccharides.

What is an example of a Aphotic environment, what are some characteristics and examples of microbes that can live in those areas.

1. Deep Sea Thermal Vents


2. They Support chemolithoautotrophs that cannot use oxygen but instead use: H2S, CO2, Fe, CH4, inc, or CO.


3. Worms, microbial gardening and microinvertibrates can live in these conditions.

What is a Chemolithoautotroph.

They obtain their energy from Chemicals found in rocks and produce the energy themselves.

What is a Chemoautotroph.

A microbe that obtains and produces its own food energy from chemicals.

What are the three characteristics of an Acid Mine Drainage.

1. pH < 3


2. Comes from pyrite: FES2 ---> SO4 + H


3. The lower the pH the higher the malleability of the metal in the H2O and Soil.

What are the four characteristics of Carbonate Caves.

1. No Primary Productivity


2. Dissolved Organic Matter comes form moisture percolating into the caves.


3. Spleothans, which are stalactites that drip the percolation.


4. Low Microbial growth.


What are the three characteristics of a Microscope.

1. Resolution: The clarity of the microscope.


2. Magnification


3. Contrast

What are the three uses for a microscope.

1. Identification and Detection


2. Enumeration


3. To Describe characteristics.

What is Bright Field Microscopy. What is Dark Field Microscopy.

1. Allows us to see dark colored cells by using a light source


2. Allows us to see bright, alive, and non-stained cells.

What is phase-contrast microscopy. What is differential interference contrast microscopy.

1. Cell walls contrast against a dark background


2. Similar colored to contrast, shows the depth of cells.

What is Fluorescent microscopy. What are the two different stains used.

1. Staining the cells that cause them to glow


2. a. Acridic Orange - stains them orange


b. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization - stains antibodies.

What is confucal laser scanning microscopy. What is Flow cytometry microscopy.

1. Produces a 3-D image because a laser passes over the specimen.


2. Uses a laser that stays in one location. (good for enumeration)

What is Electron Microscopy. What are the two types of electron microscopy.

1. Short wavelengths of electron beams (can reach 1 million magnification)


2. a. Scanning Electron Microscopy - an electron beam scans the specimens.


b. Transmission electron microscopy.

What are the two types of extraction methods.

1. Physical - Material shaking, glass beads.


2. Chemical - Water and tween 80 (10%)

What is the plating method.

Streak plating - grow a pure culture by isolating colonies.

What are the two types of culture media.

1. Selective - The media will grow only specific microbes.


2. differential - Visually see a difference in microbes

How do we culture viruses.

By using a host, animal cells.

What is a viral plague array

It enumerates plaques of no-cell growth.

When referring to DNA what do ATGC pair with.

1. Aderime=thymine A=T


2. Cetosine=Guanine G=C

What is the process by which DNA turns into Product.

1. DNA ---> mRNA through Transcription


2. mRNA ---> Protein through translation


3. Protein ---> Product through Enzymatic processes.

What is used in DNA replication. What is used to transcribe DNA into mRNA. What is used to translate mRNA into protein.

1. DNA polymerase


2. RNA polymerase


3. Ribosomes

What are the two ways to extract DNA.

1. Physical - Freeze/thaw cycles, Ginding, or Sonication


2. Chemical - SDS or Lysozyme

How do you clean up the DNA extraction Process

1. Ethanol precipitation


2. Cesium Chloride


3. Phenol Chloroform extraction

What are the three ways to determine composition of DNA

1. Sequence Identification


2. Hybridization


3. G-C content

What are the three steps to a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

1. Dematarization - separation of stuents using Taq polymerase


2. Arnalism - Bonds forming between complimentary base pairs using DNA polymerase


3. Replication

What type of genetic material are viruses made of.


Either DNA or RNA

What are restriction enzymes.

Enzymes that recognize specific base-pair patterns in DNA, and are then used to cut replicated DNA at specified positions (after specified patterns).

What is a microarray.

DNA on a chip filled with probes

What is restriction fragment length polymorphism.

The entire genome of a particular or group of organisms.

What are the three things that recumbent DNA methods are used for.

1. Find new or identical genes


2. Characterize/ID unculturable microbes


3. Screen for activity in a sample.

Draw the Carbon Cycle

Draw the Nitrogen Cycle

Draw the Sulfur Cycle

What occurs during Nitrogen fixation, nitrification, and denitrification.

1. Nitrogen fixation (aerobic)


N2 ---> NH4+


2. Nitrification (aerobic)


NH4+ ---> NO2- ---> NO3-


3. Deitrification (anaerobic)


NO3- ---> NO ---> N20 ---> N2


What occurs during assimilatory nitrate reduction and during dissimilatory nitrate reduction.

1. Assimilatory Nitrate Reduction (aerobic)


NO3- ---> NH3+


2. Disimmilatory Nitrate Reduction (anaerobic)


No3- ---> NO2- ---> NH4+

What occurs during assimilatory sulfate reduction and during disimilatory sulfate reduction.

1. Assimilatory Sulfate Reduction (aerobic)


H2S --->SO4 2- ----> R-SH


2. Dissimilatory Sulfate Reduction (anaerobic)


SO4 2- ---> H2S

What occurs during Sulfur oxidation and during phototrophic oxidation.

1. Sulfur Oxidation (aerobic) (chemoautotrophic)


H2S ---> S ---> SO4 2-


2. Phototrophic Oxidation (anaerobic) (photoautotrophic)


Purple and Green Sulfur Bacteria form.

Why do we need SO4 2-. Why do we need H2S.

1. SO4 2- moves metal particles.


2. H2S is used in distribution systems

What are the six types (and describe each) of microbial diversity

1. Individual - One organism


2. Population - A group of genetically related organism


3. Guild - Populations in the same area competing for resources.


4. Community - All guilds present in an environment


5. Assemblage - All guilds present in a sample


6. Ecosystem - Microbial community, biotic and abiotic factors.

What are the three ways to classify a microbial community.


1. Genetics


2. Morphology


3. Functions


What are the three ways species are identified.


1. Culturing


2. Staining


3. DNA Hybridization

What are the 8 diversity factors and the ideal conditions for each.

1. pH - Neutral (7)


2. Vegetation - necessary depending on type


3. Water content - Moderate level


4. O2 concentration - Aerobic


5. Temperature - Moderate (20-40 C)


6. Organic Matter - High concentration


7. Soil Depth - Close to Surface


8. Organic Constituents - None

What are Mutualism and Synergism

1. Mutualism - Two organisms sharing and both benefiting


2. Synergism - Sharing energy to obtain greater amounts of nutrients with greater benefit.

What are Commensalism and Neutralism

1. Commensalism - One organism benefits the other organism is not harmed or benefited.


2. Neutralism - little interaction, all organisms stay the same

What are Predation and Paracitism

1. Predation - One organism consumes another


2. Parasitism - A parasite attached to an organism and takes the nutrients they intake but do not kill the organism.

What are Amensalism and Competition

1. Amensalism - One population remains neutral and a second population is harmed.


2. Competition - Both organisms are negatively impacted

What are Co-metabolism and consoslationalism.

1. Co-metabolism - One population does a metabolic process but cannot use the metabolite produced so they give it to another organism that needs it.


2. Consoslionalism - All organisms work together to produce.

What are Microbial Megacommunities

1. High numbers of organisms and a lot of diversity


2. Examples:


a. Biofilms/ Wastewater Treatment Facilities/ Exopolysaccharides


b. Rhyzosphere - Synergistic relationship