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71 Cards in this Set

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define weather:
specific atmosphere conditions at a given time and place
define climate:
weather conditions continued over a period of time
What are major influences on weather and climate?
Solar radiation, rotational effects, regional effects
How does solar radiation effect climate?
The amount of light effects photosynthesis rates, and the heat could be a benefit or detriment.
How does humidity influence weather?
atmospheric pressure
How does albedo influence weather?
reflectivity of the surface.
how does solar radiation recieved by earth vary by latitude?
there is 25% reflected
what are rotational effects on weather and climate?
coriolis force, movement of air masses, ocean currents
what is coriolis force?
apparent force caused by the rotation of earth on its axis
what are the coriolois force's effects on weather?
responsible for major patterns of wind conditions
how do air masses affect weather?
air at equator warms and rises, as the air rises it cools (adiabatically), as the air cools it moves away from equator, then it falls creating high pressure
How are air masses effects related to solar radiation?
They both have the adiabatic process in common.
What are regional effects on weather and climate?
topography, north Vs. south facing slopes, inversions
describe a rain shadow:
a dry area on a mountain facing away from the wind
describe the formation of a rain shadow:
as the air gains elevation, it must release the moisture, therefore having far less when it reaches the side of the mountain away from the wind.
describe windward
the direction the wind is blowing from at the time of question
describe leeward
direction downwind from point of reference
describe adiabatic processes
is gas compresses its warm, it cools as it expands
why is aspect important to local conditions?
the position the slope has effects how much energy it receives
what is an inversion?
when warm air becomes trapped under a layer or colder
What is a biome?
Major ecological community types. Large plant formations, and associated animals
What are the types of terrestrial biomes? (11)
Grassland, Savannah, Shrubland, Desert, Tropical Rainforest, Tropical Seasonal Forest, Temperate Deciduous Forest, Temperate Evergreen Forest, Taiga (Boreal), Tundra, Alpine
Describe Grassland
high evaporation, periodic severe drough, grazing and burrowing animals, carbon below ground,
Describe Savannah
open grasslands, wide spaces trees, determined by rainfall and soil texture, often created by human disturbance
Describe shrubland
dominated by woody persistant vegetation, resistant to fire
Describe Desert
evaporation exceeds rainfall
Tropical Rainforest
Low latitude forest, high temperature and precipitation
Tropical Seasonal Forest
Marked wet and dry periods
Temperate Deciduous Forest
cooler, more seasonal, broad leaf forest
Temperate Evergreen Forest
Cool, seasonal forest, cone-bearing gymnosperms
Boreal (Taiga)
Colder, drier, high latitude evergreen forest
Tundra
Cold, desertlike conditions (permafrost)
Alpine
high elevation transition from coniferous forest to tundra like vegetation.
What are the freshwater ecosytems?
Lentic, Lotic, Wetlands, and watershed
Describe Lentic
standing bodies of water
Describe Lotic
free-flowing bodies of water
Describe Wetlands
defined by vegetation, hydrological conditions, and soils
Describe Watershed
all of the area of land that drains into a particular stream
What are the saltwater ecosystems?
Stratification (Pelagic and Benthic), Intertidal Zones, Coral Reefs, Estuaries, Tidal Marshes, Mangrove Swamps
Describe Pelagic:
whole body of water
Describe Benthic:
bottom
Descirbe Intertidal Zones:
interface between ocean and land
Describe Coral Reefs:
accumulation of calcareous skeletal remains
mangrove swamps:
replace marshes in tropics, tolerate seawater.
Describe the border between biomes:
No sharp borders, usually they are gradual, and intermix.
Describe Estuaries:
where freshwater and saltwater join.
Tidal Marshes:
associated with Estuaries; effected by tides.
What defines where biomes exist?
Temperature, amount of precipitation, presence of seasons
Describe the border between biomes:
No sharp borders, usually they are gradual, and intermix.
Describe temperature budget
energy in = energy out
Define radiation:
energy transfer from warmer body to cooler body
Define conduction:
energy transfer through contact
Define Convection:
Moving body (air)
Define evaporation:
from cooler to hotter
Describe Metabolism:
heat produced as by-product
Describe thermoregulator:
Tolerates it
What are physiological characteristics?
Metabolic, Blood flow, Shivering, Acclimation
What are behavioral charecteristics?
Migrate, Excavate, Hibernate, Thermoregulate, Aggregate, Propagate, Tolerate, Terminate
Sources of water gain:
drinking, root uptake, food, skin absorption, absorption air
Sources of water loss:
urine, food waste, biosynthesis, lactation, evaporation, mucus/tears, fruit production
Write the equation for cellular respiration:
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 ---> chemical energy + 6 CO2 + 6 H2O
Write the equation for photosynthesis:
Light energy + 6 CO2 + 6 H2O ---> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
What is the difference between C3, C4, and CAM Plants
leaf stomata close to prevent H2O loss, O2 builds up; CO2 is depleted; O2 competes for rubisco, C4 & CAM plants use CO2 pumping cycle to increase CO2 in cells, C4 plants (corn, crabgrass, sugarcane) produce a 4 C compound, CAM plants (succulents, some cacti) fix CO2 at night; use in day
What is an oscillation?
a single swing from one extreme limit to the other
What are some biological important fluctuations and their period?
Day:night, seasons, ENSO, NAO, Milankovitch, density cycles
Circadian and Circannual produce:
some of the most important ecological adaptations (internal clocks, photoperiodism)
What is the red queen hypothesis:
organisms have to evolve (adapt) as fast as they can just to keep up with environmental fluctuations
what is evolution:
Over generations, traits that are relatively better at enhancing survival and reproduction tend to
become more abundant in populations
What is natural selection:
process where heritable make an organism more likely to survive and successfully reproduce
what is genetic drift:
soemthing that alters the genetic composition, but is completely random.
what are adaptations:
characteristics that
enhance their survival and reproduction in particular environments