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29 Cards in this Set

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Anticline
upcurved fold in rock layers in which the oldest layer is the center of the fold
compression
stress that squeezes crustal rocks together
deformation
bending, tilting, and breaking of the Earth's crust
dome mountain
landform created when molten rock pushes up rock layers on the Earth's surface and the layers then are worn away in places, leaving separate high peaks
fault
break in rock along which rocks on either side of the break move
fault plane
surface of a fault along which movement of rocks occurs
fault-block mountain
mountain formed where faulting breaks the Earth's crust into large blocks that become tilted, causing some blocks to drop down relative to other blocks
folded mountain
landform created when tectonic movements bend and uplift rock layers
folding
permanent deformation or bending of a rock under stress
footwall
in a nonvertical fault, the rock below the fault plane
fracture
break in rock along which there is no movement
graben
long, narrow valley formed by faulting and downward slippage of a crustal block
hanging wall
in a nonvertical fault, the rock above the fault plane
isostacy
balancing of the forces pressing up and down on the Earth's crust
isostatic adjustment
up-and-down movements of the Earth's crust to reach isostasy
monocline
a fold in rock layers in which both limbs remain horizontal
mountain belt
group of large mountain systems
mountain range
group of adjacent mountains with the same general shape and structure
mountain system
group of adjacent mountain ranges
normal fault
fault in which the hanging wall moves down relative to the footwall
plateau
large area of flat-topped rocks high above sea level
reverse fault
fault in which the hanging wall moves up relative to the footwall
shearing
stress that pushes rocks in opposite horizontal direction
stress
the amount of force per unit area that is placed on a given material
strike-slip fault
fault in which the rock on either side of a fault plane slides horizontally
syncline
downcurved fold in rock layers in which the youngest layer is in the center
tension
stress that pulls rocks apart
thrust fault
type of reverse fault in which the fault plane is nearly horizontal rather than vertical
volcanic mountain
mountain formed when molten rock erupts onto the Earth's surface