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38 Cards in this Set

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coca
-a bush that grows in the Andes** and produces cocaine
-has been harvested for thousands of years and actively cultivated for over 800 years
history of cocaine
-made from coca
-early psychiatric uses by Sigmund Freud (as a treatment for depression and morphine dependence)
-Sherlock Holmes stories talked about positive and negative effects of cocaine
4 forms of cocaine
-coca paste
-cocaine hydrochloride
-freebase
-crack or rock
coca paste
-crude extract created during the manufacture of cocaine
-can be mixed with tobacco and smoked
cocaine hydrochloride
-most common form of pure cocaine
-stable water-solube salt
-cannot smoke it
freebase
-prepared as a chemical base
-can be heated and the vapors inhaled
crack or rock
-lumps of dried, smokable cocaine
-prepared by mixing cocaine with water and baking soda
-safer that freebase, but it get you high quicker
timeline of cocaine use
-1960s: use began to increase again
-1985: major form available-cocaine hydrochloride (snorted)-relatively expensive
-inexpensive form came out-crack-smokable (greater abuse potential)
Anti-Drug Abuse Acts of 1986 and 1988**
-penalties for sale of crack cocaine significantly more severe than penalties associated with powder cocaine
-tougher penalties for first time users of crack
potential benefits of cocaine
-local anesthetics (1860)
-currently used for surgery in the nasal, laryngeal, and esophageal regions (facial regions)
causes for concern of cocaine
-acute toxicity
-chronic toxicity
acute toxicity of cocaine
-causes profound CNS stimulation, which can lead to respiratory or cardiac arrest
-difficult to estimate the size of a lethal dose-affects every person differently
risks of regularly snorting cocaine
-damage to the nasal septum
-paranoid psychosis
-damage to the heart muscle
(similar effects to methamphetamine)
cocaine during pregnancy
-increased risk of miscarriage and torn placenta
-"crack babies"
cocaethylene
-a toxic chemical formed when cocaine is combined with alcohol
history of amphetamines
-1932: patented
-used medically
-used by soldiers in WWII to fight fatigue
-1960: "speed scene"
-eventually became more tightly controlled (some switched back to coke)
-a lot of illicit meth labs
-now considered a "club drug"
ephedrine
-active ingredient in ma huang
-a sympathomimetic drug
sympathomimetic drug
stimulates the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system
ma huang
what a chinese medicinal tea is made from
what are amphetamines used for medically?
-asthma
-narcolepsy
-hyperactivity in children
-appetite supressant
-stimulant
where did amphetamines regionally start being used?
on the West coast
speed
what amphetamines were called during the 1960s
-"Speed scene"=a time and place in which people used and became dependent on intravenous amphetamine
ice or crystal meth
-methamphetamine hydrochloride crystals
-smokable
effects of structure of amphetamines
-allows it to more easily cross the blood-brain barrier (except ephedrine and PPA)
what do amphetamines stimulate the release of?
-activity of monoamine neurotransmitters
-dopamine
-norephinephrine
-serotonin
peak effets of amphetamines
-oral ingestion
-intranasal administration
-intravenous injection
-1.5 hours after oral ingestion
-15-30 minutes after intranasal administration
-5-10 minutes following intravenous injection or smoking
half-life of amphetamine and methamphetamine
-amphetamine: 10-12 hours
-meth: 4-5 hours
beneficial uses of amphetamines
-weight loss
-narcolepsy
-treatment of ADHD
-"Smart pills"
-athletics
narcolepsy
uncontrolled daytime episodes or muscular weakness and falling asleep
acute toxicity risks of amphetamine use
-may destroy catecholamine neurons
-risk of developing movement disorders like Parkinson's disease**(associated with dopamine)--caused by primarily meth
chronic toxicty from high-dose use of amphetamines
-paranoid psychosis
-compulsive and repetitive stereotyped actions (spending a night counting corn flakes)
crank
-a type of meth
-it is snorted
-cheapest form
caffeine
-most widely used psychoactive drug
-can cause dependence and interfere with functioning
-belongs to a class of chemicals known as xanthines
average consumption of americans
-200-250 mg/day
effects of caffeine
-offsets the effects of fatigue on both mental and physical tasks
-headache treatment
-hyperactivity treatment
reproductive effects of caffeine
-high consumption reduces a woman's chances of becoming pregnant and slows the growth of the fetus
-research is mixed on whether it increases risk os miscarriage
heart disease effects of caffeine
high intake may increase the risk of heart attack, particularly in people with other risk factors
theobromine and cocoa
stimulant found in chocolate