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18 Cards in this Set

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  • Back


Make unique contributions to self-regulation & risk-taking behaviour

Parenting Styles

Authoratative - > warmth > control

Authoritarian - < warmth > control

Permissive - ^ warmth < control


Primary/Secondary Sex Characteristics

Primary - genitals distinguishing sexes

Secondary - Differentiating characteristics that do not relate to reproduction

Erikson's model of identity

In each of 8 stages exists a PSYCHOSOCIAL CRISIS

1. Trust vs Mistrust

2. Autonomy vs Shame (Toddlers)

3. Initiative vs Guilt (exploring environment - early childhood)
4. Industry vs Inferiority (competence)

5. Identity vs Role Confusion (adolescence)
6. Intimacy vs Isolation (young adults)
7. Generativity vs Stagnation (adults)
8. Ego integrity vs Despair (elderly)

Social Clock

Emphasis on timing of events

Life transitions between people varies

Age as an explanatory variable

Biological , Psychological, Functional and Social age

Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory

Model for successful ageing

Selection -> Optimization -> Compensation

Gender influences on childhood and adolescence

Childhood - Prefer gender stereotypical activities, gender segregation ^ mid-childhood

Adolescence: Intensification of gender differences due to pressure, adult gender identity formation is stimulated

Gender Theories

Cognitive Developmental - Kohlberg - Learning sex is constant tied to underlying biology not surface characteristics

Gender Schema Theory - When gender is learned, children want to behave like gender

Piaget's theory of Morality

Children transition from CONSTRAINTS PHASE (judge activity on consequences by authority figure) -> COOPERATION PHASE (judge activities on rightness of intentions

Piaget thoughts that best moral development came from

Cooperation and problem-solving events

Kohlberg's Theory of Mortality

Stage 1: Preconventional Morality
Stage 2: Conventional Morality
Stage 3: Postconventional Morality

Preconventional Morality

Level 1: Avoiding punishment/external reason

Level 2: Reward & Individualism

Conventional Morality

Level 3: Gain approval & avoid disapproval of others

Level 4: Law & Order

Postconventional Morality

Level 5: Social contracts 'I'm obliged to do it' & Individual rights in face of the law

Level 6: No external reasons


Questioned focus on morality of justice rather than care and on boys only

Moral Disengagement

Selective activation & disengagement of moral standards in specific contexts

Separating moral reactions from inhumane conduct by disabling the mechanism of self-condemnation

Moral Disengagement (2)

SELF SANCTIONS (guilt) disengaged from bad conduct by reconstructing conduct to obscure causal agency -> disregarding consequences & villifying recipients