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59 Cards in this Set

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the study of prenatal development (from fertilization of an egg to birth)
process of reproductive cell production that ensures the correct # of chromosomes
individual cells divide resulting in 2 daughter cells that are identical to parent cells
aggregate of mitotically produced cells
When does the majority of growth occur?
13-16 weeks
"monster producing" (they go from mom to kid)
fertilized egg
Pre-implantation period
from fertilization in fallopian tubes to implantation in the uterus
Embryonic period
week 2-8 (all major organs and structures form)
Fetal period
Week 9-40 (final development & maturation of all tissues)
What are the order of events in the pre-implantation period?
(1st week) Fertilization, Meiosis, Mitosis, Blastocyst formation (5th day), Implantation of blastocyst into endometrial lining
What 2 layers make up the blastocyst?
Trophoblast (outter layer) and Embryoblast (inner mass)
What are the 5 physiological processes in the embryonic period?
Induction, Proliferation, Differentiation, Morphogenesis, Maturation
What makes up the bilaminar disk?
Epiblast and Hypoblast
What week does the placenta form?
2nd week
What is the placenta formed from?
the trophoblast layer and the endometrial lining
Mesenchyme cells are formed from...?
epiblast cells that have migrated towards the primitive streak
What do mesenchymal cells give rise to?
connective tissue forming cells: fibroblasts, chondroblasts, osteoblast, etc
What makes up the trilaminar disc?
ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
From what layer are each of the trilaminar disc layers formed?
Ectoderm - from epiblast, Mesoderm - from mesenchyme (from epiblast), endoderm - from hypoblast
What are somites?
38 paired cuboidal aggregates of mesenchymal cells that wil form the skeletal, muscle and dermis (connective tissues of the skin)
What is the epidermis and nervous system formed from?
What are the connective tissues, muscles and vessels formed from?
What is the epithelial lining of the GI tract and respiratory system formed from?
What membrane is at the caudal end? And what embryonic tissue is not there?
cloacal membrane. Mesoderm is not present
What membrane is at the cephalic end? And what embryonic tissue is not there?
oropharyngeal membrane. Mesoderm is not present
What cells make up the neural plate?
neuroectoderm cells
What is the role of neural crest cells?
They break off from the neural folds and disperse into the mesenchyme. They will form parts of the face & neck structures & oral tissues
What do many embryologists consider to be the fourth embryonic layer?
Neural crest cells that have dispersed into the mesenchyme
What are the five major processes involved in the development of the face?
1. stomodeum/oral cavity 2. mandibular processes 3. maxillary processes 4.Frontonasal/upper face 5. Development of the neck
What type of fusion occurs on the same surface?
Facial fusion
What type of fusion occurs on different surfaces?
Palatal fusion
The union of the ectoderm and endoderm form what temporary membrane?
Buccopharyngeal/Oropharyngeal Membrane
What results from the rupture of the buccopharyngeal/oropharyngeal membrane?
an open GI tract
Raphe's pounch eventually forms what?
the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
What does the mandibular arch give rise to?
1. lower face 2. mandible 3. ligaments of jaw and middle ear 4. muscles of mastication 5. tongue 6. maxillary processes
What is Meckel's cartilage and what does is form?
Cartilage formed within each side of the mandibular arch. If forms the middle ear bones
What is the Periochondrum of Meckel's cartilage?
It becomesligaments of the jaw and middle ear
What does the maxillary process give rise to?
sides of the upper lip, cheeks, secondary palate, posterior portion of the maxilla, maxillary canines and posterior teeth, zygomatic bones and portions of the temporal bones
What is macrostomia
cleft at the commissures (incomplete fusion) makes the mouth huge
What is the oronasal membrane?
it separates the nasal sac from the stomodeum. Once this disintegrates, the oral and nasal membranes are in communication
The intermaxillary segment/premaxilla is formed from...?
the medial nasal processes
What forms the upper lip?
the joining of the maxillary process and the 2 medial nasal processes
What is the nasolacrimal groove
it extends from the medial corner of the eye to the nasal cavity
What is the nasolacrimal cord?
the ectodermal thickening in the floor of the nasolacrimal groove. It forms the lacrimal sac of the eye and becomes the nasolacrimal duct
The primitive pharynx is also called...?
The oropharynx
Which branchial arches form the neck?
The lower 4 arches
Which branchial arch is Reichert's Cartilage from?
What does the 1sr branchial GROOVE form?
the external auditory meatus
Where are the pharyngeal pouches located?
between the branchial arches (internally)
What does the 1st pharyngeal pouch form?
the auditory tubes
What does the 2nd pharyngeal pouch form?
the palatine tonsils
what do the 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches form?
the thymus and parathyroid glands
What week does the primary palate form?
What is the anterior 1/3 of the hard palate called?
Primary Palate
When is the secondary palate formed?
6th week
What is the posterior 2/3 of the hard palate called?
Secondary palate
How is the secondary palate formed?
The maxillary processes give rise to 2 palatal shelves. They grow inferior and deep in a vertical direction. They flip and move horizontal and grow medially towards each other. Where they meet creates the median palatine suture
What week does the palate formation complete?
12th week