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15 Cards in this Set

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What is data?
Observations (such as measurements, genders, survey responses) that have been collected.
What is statistics?
A collection of methods for planning studies and experiments, obtaining data, and then organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions based on the data.
What is a population?
The complete collection of all elements (scores, people, measurements, and so on) to be studied. The collection is complete in the sense that it includes all subjects to be studied.
What is a census?
The collection of data from every member of the population.
What is a sample?
A subcollection of members selected from a population.
What is a parameter?
A numerical measurement describing characteristics of a population.
What is a statistic?
A numerical measurement describing a characteristic of a sample.
What is quantitative data?
Data that consists of numbers representing counts or measurements.
What is qualitative data?
Data that can be separated into different categories that are distinguishable by some nonnumeric characteristic.
What is discrete data?
Data that results when the number of possible values is either a finite number of a "countable" number. (That is, the number of possible values is 0 or 1 or 2 and so on).
What is continuous (numerical) data?
Data that results from infinitely many possible values that correspond to some continuous scale that covers a range of values without gaps, interruptions, or jumps.
What is the nominal level of measurement?
A measurement that is characterized by data that consist of names, labels, or categories only. The data cannot be arranged in an ordering scheme (such as low to high).
What is the ordinal level of measurement?
A measurement that can be arranged in some order, but differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless.
What is the interval level of measurement?
A measurement that is like the ordinal level, with the additional that the difference between any two data values is meaningful. However, data at this level do not have a natural zero starting point (where none of the quantity is present).
What is the ratio level of measurement?
An interval level measurement with the additional property that there is also a natural zero starting point (where zero indicates that none of the quantity is present). For values at this level, differences and ratios are both meaningful.