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124 Cards in this Set

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P2P
Peer to Peer
Some “client” communicates with other “client” directly, known as “peer to peer”. Both are equal partners!
Cloud Computing
having secure access to all data from any network device.
Google Drive, Dropbox, iCloud
Client vs. Server
Client = Uses services
Server = provides service
Botnet
is a network of infected computers; they can be controlled remotely to create real damages
ARPANET
n 1971, the U.S. Department of Defense’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) funded the development of a data network called ARPANET

15 nodes
WYSIWYG
What you see is what you get
JPG
image format
PNG
image format
RAW
image format (uncompressed)
MPEG4
video format
WAV
audio format
AAC
audio format
GUI
Graphical User Interface
PSTN
Public switched telephone network (creation of globally unique numbers) Area and country codes.
TCP/IP history
ARPANET developed the TCP/IP protocol unifying all data networks.
CERN
creation of www,
encarta/hypertext
Microsoft Encarta is an example of using hypertext or hypermedia to link documents, images, videos and maps.
Tim Berners-Lee
Inventor of HTML
Url
Hostname , followed by resource path
DNS
Domain Name System is a world-wide “phonebook” for the Internet
number in an IP address range from 0 to
255
Country Code =
TLD
Area Code =
Domains
Phone # =
Hostnames
Internet =
= Network of Computers + TCP/IP + DNS
www =
= Internet + HTML + HTTP
is the act of attempting to steal personal information from unsuspecting victims.
Phising
is a program that is trying to damage your computer or steal personal information
Malware
One of the most financially destructive computer viruses
Trojan virus Gozi
is a worm that carries a “mission”, e.g., stealing personal information, or taking control of its host
Virus
DDOS
A botnet can blackmail websites for
money.
If not paid, they send millions of “zombie” computers to attack!
Where is a Cookie Stored?
A cookie is small piece of information that a web server stored inside your browser
JavaScript
Netscape introduced a programming language, called JavaScript, to create dynamic contents in addition to HTML.
outline fonts
scalable; they are display resolution independent.
Postscript, a technology used by laser printers and GUI for printing or displaying outline fonts. was invented by..
Adobe
A byte
consist of 8 binary digits or BITS
2 to the 8th = 256 numbers
Storage CD

infor
700MB

Sony and Philips in the 70s.
70 minutes of digital audio for 2 (left and right) channel

16-bit, 44,100 Hz digital audio
Storage DVD
5-10GB
USB storage
4-64GB
Blue ray storage
25-50GB
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
uses 7-bits to encode all standard keyboard characters. = Plain Text
UTF-8 (also known as Unicode
extension of ASCII for international keyboards
the smallest unit of information about a picture
Pixel
color-depth.
number of Bits-per-pixel

affects the overall texture/details of an image.
The resolution of an image
total number of pixels represented.

horizontal (width) x vertical
(height) number of pixels.
Pixel density
(pixel-per-inch or ppi) defines the physical size of each pixel.
A TV has 100 ppi;
but a display has 200 ppi;
an iPhone 5 has 326 ppi

The higher the ppi of a display, the sharper the image/text
Meta-data
Information about the image itself

Including GEOTAGGING
The larger the change in air pressure, the louder the sound.
AMPLITUDE

encoded as a binary number.
The faster the change in air pressure, the higher pitch the sound.
FREQUENCY
films are recorded at
Our eyes cannot perceive changes faster than 24 times a second. Typically films are recorded at least 24 frames per second.
A common format for lossless data compression
**ZIP**

Apple Lossless is a lossless compressed audio format

PNG, TIFF are a lossless compressed image format
Common lossy compression formats
MP3, OGG, AAC, M4A

JPEG

MPEG1, MPEG2, MPEG4, MP4, AVCHD
Using lossless compression, we can reduce
data size by
50%
Lossy Compression can reduce size by
90%
Uncompressed Audio
WAV, AIFF
Uncompressed Video
There is no common uncompressed video standard for consumers
MacDraw vs MacPaint
MacPaint - bitmap drawing
MacDraw - Vector graphic design
Properties of Vector Graphics
Scalable
Zoomable
A PROGRAM
a sequence of instructions that a computer must follow to accomplish a task
Basic instructions (program
Actions
One instruction follows another
Sequence
When a situation happens
Condition
Scratch
Developed by MIT
8 types of blocks in Scratch
Control, Motion, Looks, Sound, Pen, Sensing, Operators, and Variables.
A sprite
has its own set of scripts (actions) and
costumes (look)
Variable (Scratch)
A variable is used to store a value

Count things

When a sprite stores a value inside a variable, another sprite or the stage can recall the value
Typical Software Function
Read some input data, do some processing on
that data, then write some output data.
the first widely used browser
NetScape

Webcrawler, Lycos, Excite, and Infoseek are some of the early search engines on the WWW
a piece of software that manages the resources on every computer
OS

User Interfaces and File Systems are two of the most visible components of an OS
gives us a structured and hierarchical view of our data files

organizer of our secondary storage
File System
automates specific Hardware function
OS
An OS is responsible for..
-presenting an easy-to-use user interface
(“look & feel”)
• keeping track of all user data
• managing all hardware, e.g., sound, printers, networks, hard disks, display, mouse, keyboard, etc.
• executing applications
• starting up or shutting down a computer
Default File Systems
NTFS (New Technology File System) or FAT

HFS+ (Hierarchical File System Plus), or Mac OS Extended.
Formatting
Formatting a hard drive means setting up a new File System by erasing all its data
an essential service for computers and mobile devices
Networking
is an equipment that converts 1s and 0s to audible sound, and vice versa
A dialup modem
a fax machine works by
sends/receives a scanned document (in 1s and 0s) over the telephone using an internal dialup modem
faster speed = ADSL modema
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
Alto is a... developed by...
personal office system ; Xerox
connects several local computers to share printers and files.

to work within an office or a building, typically under 100 meters
LAN
connect offices across blocks, streets, or towns
Router
“switch board” for computer communication
Wide Area Network (WAN) connection to outside computers or networks
A router has
multiple Lan ports for local computers

1 WAN port (connect to ADSL modem) to connect to internet (outside networks)
WAN connection is assigned an external IP address by
Internet Service Provider (ISP).

All connected devices will share this same external IP address when accessing the Internet.
will provide a dynamic IP address for each connected computer.
Router
SSID
Service Set Identification (SSID) (e.g., UVic, UVicOpen
Any computer within the range of a wireless router can sniff all IP packets transmitted over the air.
Packet Sniffing
WEP, WPA, WPA2
Wifi router security options

data is encrypted between computers and router
support voice and SMS (Short Message Services up 160 chars) over GSM networks.
2G
support voice and high speed data access over GSM and CDMA networks
3G
proprietary networks supported by different mobile phone operators
Mobile Data Networks
There is no such thing as mobile IP addresses!!! (Your IP address changes whenever you move.)

It is the ability for a mobile device to move within a mobile telephone network without losing its connection or identity
Roaming
The 4th generation mobile data network
standards include LTE and WiMax
4G
The brain of a computer
CPU
populated with CPU, memory and I/O devices
Motherboard
A program must be loaded HERE before it is Executed
RAM
fetches, decodes and executes instructions one after another
CPU
Main Components of a Computer
System Bus, CPU, Ram, i/o devices.
created the first microprocessor 4004
Intel
a sequence of CPU instructions
A Program
regulates all activities going on inside; it is measured in Hz, times per second.
CPU clock
Joseph M. Jacquard
Loom - computer programming
A CPU reads one instruction at a time
from the memory, typically RAM
Fetch
For each instruction read, it
determines what the instruction is about.
Decode
It does what the instruction says
Execute
computer speed is determined by
amount of RAM
a special kind of non-volatile secondary memory, which has no moving part
Flash Memory
ENAIC
Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer
first computer
Charles Babbage
Analytical Engine, arguably the world’s first programmable computer—an extraordinary device with separate memory and processing units and punched-card input. He abandoned that in 1848 for a much-improved Difference Engine No. 2.
John von Neumann
?
Moores Law
number of transistors will double every 2 years for same cost
common external video port (and port for high resolution)
VGA ; DVI (High Resolution)
Video (today) most computers and TV use
HDMI (High Definition Media Interface).
ports can be
used for both input or output devices.
Universal Serial Bus (USB)
fastest - Blue (USB 3)
Most popular (USB 2)
Cpu fetches instructions from
RAM
# shades per color in 24-bpp
256
It is the smallest unit of information about a picture
pixel
1GB = Bytes
1 billion
1 nibble =
4 bits
Important Port Number
80 for HTTP
110 Email POP3
20 File Transfer
in an IP address
32
Personal Computers
Apple-1
IBM -PC
distributing documents (early App)
Gopher
two common models of communication
Peer to Peer
Client/Server
ccTLD
country code tld