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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Characteristics of Effective Helpers

1) Positive, accepting view of other people

2) Good self-esteem and is mentally healthy

3) Good self-care skills

4) Creative and competent appreciating both the science and the art of helping

5) Courage

Important information about Relationship, Invitation, Power

The relationship comes before the invitation and you better keep your power in check so they want a relationship with you that will allow for an invitation.

Identify Fillers that we all use




-Images past and future






-Strong Feelings


Percentage of Types of Communication

Listening - 40%

Talking - 35%

Reading - 16%

Writing - 9%

Percentage of Nonverbal Communication

Verbal - 7%

Tone - 38%

Facial Expressions (Posture, Gesture, Eye Contact) - 58%

Identify Therapeutic Faux Pas

-Exclamation of Surprise

-Being Punitive

-Giving False/Superficial Reassurance

-Psychobabble and premature interpretations

-Probing Traumatic issues

-Avoidance of strong feelings

-Giving advice

-Making the situation about you

-Jumping into problem solving too quickly

-Not making timely referrals


-Promising confidentiality

-Under involvement

-Over involvement


1) Square Up

2) Open

3) Lean Forward

4) Eye Contact

5) Relax

Identify Brene Brown's Point

Give examples of what she talked about

Main points of Psychological First Aid

Be professional, acknowledge diversity in age and developmental level and be mindful of how you speak. No assumptions!

5 Basic Principles of Psychological First Aid

1) Safety

2) Calmness

3) Connectedness

4) Self and Community Self-Efficacy

5) Hope

8 Core Actions of Psychological First Aid

1) Contact and Engagement

2) Safety and Comfort

3) Stabilization

4) Info Gathering

5) Practical Assistance

6) Connect with Special Support

7) Info on Coping

8) Link with Collaborative Services

Different Approaches to Career Theory

1) Harmonizing Approach

2) Developmental Approach

3) Constructivist Approach

Career Theory

Harmonizing Approach

Frank Parson's Trait-Factor

Three Central Elements

1) Traits (Interests, values, aptitudes, and personality characteristics)

2) Environment

3) Harmony between the two

Career Theory

Harmonizing Approach

John Holland: Lifelong Career Development

The Six Personality Types

Person-Environment Fit


2) Investigative

3) Artistic

4) Social

5) Enterprising

6) Conventional

Career Theory

Developmental Approaches

Donald Super: Lifelong Career Development (Half Moon)

Part 1

-A continuous process (childhood to old age)

-Influenced by different situational (school, family, economy, etc.) and personal (needs, interests, values, etc.) factors

-Composed of different roles (parent, spouse, worker, etc.)

-Experiences across life cycles, each implying a transition period

Career Theory

Development Approaches

Donald Super: Lifelong Career Development

(Half moon)

Part 2












Career Theory

Constructivist Approaches

John Krumboltz: Social Learning Theory

-Values change as one acquires experiences and greater insight

-Interests are developed based on personally enjoyable experiences



-Learning Experiences (Instrumental consequences and associative reactions)

Identify Different Types of Questions



What does QPR stand for?

1) Question

2) Persuade

3) Refer

5 Stages of the Helping Skills Model: Blimling

1) Pre-counseling

2) Listening and Responding

3) Problem Identification

4) Resolution/Referral

5) Follow Up

Helping Skills Model: Pre-Counseling




Helping Skills Model: Listening and Responding


-Active Listening: Encouraging, restating, paraphrasing, questions, identification/reflection of feelings

Helping Skills Model: Problem Identification

-What is the issue?

-What have they tried?

-What have they thought about trying?



-What is ideal?

-What is realistic?

-What are some resources they need?

Helping Skills Model: Resolution/Referral

**Referrals are done WITH someone not FOR or TO someone**

-Information giving/education if needed


-Who is the best person/office to help

Helping Skills Model: Follow Up

-There should be at least one

Group Development Theory: Tuckman

1) Forming

2) Storming

3) Norming

4) Performing

5) Adjourning

What makes a good invitation?

-Environment + Person







-Active Listening

Examples of Minimal Encouragers

-Uh huh


-I see



Two Types of Reflections







-Content and Feelings


Phrasing to use when identifying someones feelings


"You feel _____ because _____"

Formula for Paraphrasing Meaning: Reflecting Feelings

"You feel (specific emotion) because (the facts of the situation that account for that emotion)"

Formula for Paraphrasing Meaning: Reflecting Meaning

"You feel (specific emotion) because the (personal meaning behind the situation that accounts for the feeling.)"

Pitfalls of Questions

-Interrogation (Too many questions put the client on the defensive; give too much power to the interviewer)

-Multiple Questions (Clients can be confused by many questions at once)

-Questions as statements ("Don't you think it would helpful if you studied more?")

-"Why?" questions (Can cause defensiveness and discomfort)

-Too much control (Questioner is in control: who talks about what, when, and under what conditions)

Brene Brown




Special Types of Questions: Empowerment

"What will you life be like when you have resolved this difficulty?"

Special Types of Questions: Scaling

"On a scale of 0-10 with 0 being no fear and 10 being the highest possible fear, what number would illustrate your current level of anxiety about the exam?"

Special Types of Questions: Solution-Focused

The Miracle Question (Steve de Shazer, 1991)

"Suppose that one night there was a miracle while you were sleeping and the problem that brought you to therapy is solved. How would you know?"

Referral: When to refer?

-Client is considering harming themselves or someone else or you think they might be (immediate)

-Problem is clearly beyond your scope in your helping role: possible psychosis, traumatic experiences, eating disorders, the client isn't functioning well (eating, sleeping, hygiene), issues of child/elder abuse, needs for couple's or family counseling

Referral: Wording the referral?

-Make the referral with confidence

-Give as much information as you can: name of agency, phone number, how to set up an appointment

-Give the student the responsibility for setting up the appointment, unless it is an emergency

-The referral shouldn't come up as a total surprise

-Use the word counselor or counseling is sometimes less threatening than a therapist, psychologist, psychiatrist

-Normalizing the experience as much as possible

-At least once: ask how the student is doing with the issue and/or if they were able to make contact with the referral

Crisis: Emotional Reactions

State One




Stage Two

-Fear, Anger, Confusion, Guilt, Shame, Grief

Stage Three

-Reconstruction of equilibrium

-Emotional roller coaster becomes balanced but never goes back to how it was before the crisis.