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39 Cards in this Set

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Phonologicalprocesses

translatingthe stream of sounds into words

Syntacticknowledge

wouldparse the and would assist the sematic level of analysis as you determined thecase roles for each important word

Conceptual knowledge: 4th >

levelof analysis of language in Miller’s scheme, roughly equivalent to semanticmemory

Beliefs: 5th ->

level of analysis of language, according to Miller inwhich the listener’s attitudes and beliefs about the speaker influencewhat is comprehended and remember.

Online comprehension task:

task in which measurements of performanceare obtained as comprehension takes place; online means happening and beingmeasure right now. - sometimes yes or no, or lexical decisiontask

Structure building

the processes of comprehension in Gernsbacher’stheory, of building a mental representation if the meaning of sentences.

- Threeprinciple components of this structure- building processes:

1.Laying a foundation- we begin to build a mental structure that stores themeaning of the sentences in memory, foundation is initiated as the sentencebegins

Three principle components of this structure- building processes:

- Mapping information on the structure: additionalword and concept meanings are now added to the “dave”structure, elaboratingthat structure by specifying Dave’s activities.- - interferences would also be added to thestructure

Three principle components of this structure- building processes:

- evidence of structure building - What evidence supports these claims about thecomprehension process pan>

Gernbachers early work, two major effects provide support forthese mechanisms:

advantage of first mention and the advantage ofclause recency

Advantage of clause recency:



brief period of time, at the end of the sentence, whenmost recent character named has an advantage.

Advantage of the first mention:

- characters and ideas that were mentioned in the veryfirst sentence, at the beginning of the entire episode, retain a specialsignificance.

Recency effect

goes away very shortly after reading the sentence, but theadvantage if first remains.ent-->

right hemisphere

- evidenceadded the collection of evidence showing that the of the brainmay be especially important for coherence and inference processes in languagecomprehension



I.e integration of the meaning of several related sentences rather than processing single, isolated sentences

this is especially the cases when the taskrequires comprehension of discourse

Gernsbacher’s model connect her work to thefamiliar

- processof spearding activation: Two control mechanisms

1. Enhancement:

- many related memorynodes are now being boosted or enhanced in their level activation

2. Suppression:

- simultaneous suppression of memory nodes that are now out ofthe main discourse focus. Activated nodes that become unrelated to the focusdecrease in activation by the processes of suppression. i

A situation ModelApproach to Comprehension:1

- A memory representation of a real- worldsituation, for example of a situation described in a passage of text.





A situation Model Approach to Comprehension:2

- Such situation models include Temporal and Spatial information; information about objects, people, and locations mentioned in the stories and inferences drawn while comprehending

A situation Model Approach to Comprehension: 3

- When you retrieve information about the passage of text, your retrieval from the situation model is influenced by its structure ( whether you stored a person- based or a location based model)

Reference:

- in language the allusion to or indirect mention of an element fromelsewhere in the sentence or passage, as by using a pronoun or synonym W

Antecedent ( in language):

- the concept to which a later word refers; for example, herefers to the antecedent in “Bill said he was tired”.

Implication –

- there is an intended reference in a sentence of utterance, but is notmentioned explicitly, in the mind of the speaker.

Inference

- is the process by which the listener or reader draws connections betweenconcepts, determines the referents of words and ideas, and derives conclusionsfrom a message.

Authorized:

when the speakers genuinely intends animplication, we call it an authorized inference. -style-type:

Intended the implication to be drawn

if thelistener draws the intended inference, the inference is said to be authorized.

Multiple processes of drawing inferences

1. You start retrieving related informationfrom memory, using both syntactic and semantic cues; gendered pronouns, thesingular or plural status of the verb, he concepts in the focus of thedisclosure, and so forth help us know whaat information should be retrieved


2. The retrived information must be kept inmemory, probably in working memory, so its available as you make theconnections and draw inferences


3. Finally, you integrate the meaningstogether, you make the connetions between antecedents and referents, draw theinferences from one phrase to another, determine which meanings are relevant. spanstyleli

Gaze duration procedures:

how long the eyes fixate on a specific word during reading, theprinciple measure of online comprehension during reading

Fixation

in visual perception, the pause during which theeye is almost stationary and is taking in visual information, also the visualpoint on which the eyes focus during the fixation pause

100ms on such but 566ms

on “a knowledge” while reading

Two assumptions:online readings

immediacy & eye -mind assumption

Immediacy assumption:

the assumption that readers try to interpret each content word of a text as theword is encountered during reading

Eye-mind assumption:

The assumption that the eye normally remains fixed on a word as long as thatword is being actively processed during reading

1. Sentence wrap up-

occurs at end of sentence,during which readers tie up any remaining loose ends, any remaininginconsistencies or uncertaintiesminor-bid

2. Inter-clause integration

seems to be a similar component, operates on theseparate clause within a sentence.

Model architectureand processes:

- Claimswork memory is location where all sorts of knowledge- visual, lexical,syntactic, semantic and so forth are combined during comprehension.


- Theevidence confirms importance of working memory in reading comprehension - Long termmemory contains a wide variety of knowledge tyes, semantic or conceptualknowledge of

Direct Theory

- Inconversation, a persons appraisal of or informal theory aboutthe other participant in the conversation, including information about thatother persons knowledge, sophistication and personal motives

Second- order Theory

- Inconversation the informal theory we develop that expresses our knowledge ofwhat the other participant knows about us - Summarizedby the phrase “what he/she thinks I know”