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21 Cards in this Set

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Why study marine and lacustrine?

-50% of NA population live on the coast, increasing yearly


-$9 trillion of ensured coastal property


-great lakes 90% of US fresh water


-coastal pollution

Ocean currents

-driven by prevailing wind patterns on the earth's surface


-longshore currents

Tides

the rise and fall of ocean levels as a result of the gravitational attraction of the moon and earth

Tide types

1. spring: larger tide


2. neap: 90 degree to the sun; lower tide

Current types

1. ebb: seaward, water going out


2. flood: landward, water coming inland

Water motion

loop shape motion/pattern that decreases as you go deeper

Wind direction, strength, and fetch

-determines water motion


-fetch=distance to keep wind blowing

Swash

landward waves

Backwash

seaward

Constructive waves

swash>backwash

Destructive waves

swash<backwash

Littoral zone

latin for shore; contact between land and water

Mean sea level

based on average of tidal levels

Littoral drift

beach drift and longshore drift

Progradation

more sand arrive than is removed by waves

Retrogradation

more sand is removed than arrives by waves

Wave refraction

-distribution of wave energy along the shore


-leads to converging at headlands


-leads to diverging in bays

Rising sea level/global warming

-threat is real, uncertain of time schedule and magnitude


-eustatic: world wide sea level change


-change in water volume of world ocean


-change in water holding capacity


-coasts and insurance-NPR broadcast-Moral hazard

Japan earthquake/tsunami

-March 11, 2011


-M 9.0 triggered tsunami


-16,000 deaths

Indonesia /Southeast Asia

-December 26, 2004


-M 9.15 triggered tsunami


-275,000 deaths

Aleutian Island, Alaska

April 1, 1946