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24 Cards in this Set

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deposit

sediment or rock added to a landform

grain

fragment that makes up a rock

lava

molten or liquid rock underground

mineral

naturally occurring,inorganic solid with a definite chemical composition and orderly arrangement of atoms

rock

natural, solid mixture of minerals or particles

rock cycle

series of processes that change one type of rock into another type of rock

sediment

rock material that is broken down into smaller pieces or dissolved in water as rocks erode

texture

grain size and the way grains fit together in a rock

extrusive rock

igneous rock that cools and crystallizes on Earth's surface

intrusive

igneous rock that forms as magma cools underground

volcanic glass

rock that forms when lava cools too quickly to form crystals

biochemical rock

sedimentary rock that was formed by organisms or contains the remains of organisms

cementation

crystallization of minerals from water into spaces between sediment grains

chemical rock

made of minerals that crystallizes directly from water

clast

broken piece or fragment of rock

clastic rock

sedimentary rock made of clast of minerals or rock fragments

compaction

process that squeezes out fluids and decreases the space between the grains in a sediment deposit

contact metamorphism

formation of a metamorphic rock caused by magma coming into contact with existing rock

expose

to appear visible

foliated rock

contains parallel layers of flat and elongated minerals

metamorphism

process that affects structure or composition of rocks in the solid state; occurs due to changes in heat, pressure, or the addition of chemical fluids

nonfoliated rock

nonfoliated rock has mineral grains with a random interlocking texture

plastic deformation

permanent change in rock shape caused by bending and folding

regional metamorphism

formation of metamorphic rock bodies that are hundreds of square kilometers in size