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101 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
3 types of granulocytes
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
2 types of agranulocytes
monocyte, lymphocyte
characterized by segmented, or lobed nuclei, distinct cytoplasmic granules
granulocytic cells
referred to as mononuclear cells, do not have segmented nuclei
agranulocytic cells
involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders
immunity
2 types of phagocytic invaders
monocytes and neutrophils
3 types of granules that help digest foreign invaders
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
this type of WBC manufactures proteins and mediators that destroy invaders
lymphocytes
what is the most predominant WBC (except in ruminants), mainly phagocytic, involved in inflammation, segmented
neutrophil
neutrophils are called what in rabbits, birds, and reptiles
heterophils
deeply staining, clumped, segmented nuclei with 3-5 lobes. cytoplasm is usually colorless to pale pink in most species or at most are very faint, dusting of tiny granules
mature neutrophil morphology
more distinct in nuclear segmentation
equine segs
pink to orange cytoplasm
bovine seg
morphology: band shaped nuclei, horseshoe or S shaped. lack segmentation, parallel borders
immature neutrophil morphology
may be found normally, in small numbers of domestic animals. indicates release of immature neutrophils, from bone marrow. presence of WBCs in circulation is seen as a result of increased bone marrow activity.
band neutrophils
appearance of increased # of band cells and/or more immature forms is referred to as a
"left shift"
left shift is generally due to an
inflammatory reaction
what are metamyelocytes, myelocytes, promyelocytes, and myeloblasts?
stages of maturity for neutrophils
this is often seen with left shift. commonly associated with: inflammation, infection, drug toxicity
toxic neutrophilic changes
3 cytoplasmic characteristics of toxic neutrophils
Dohle bodies, cytoplasmic vacuolation, toxic granulation
what species show toxic neutrophils during many kinds of illnesses?
feline
small, pale bluish-gray irregular inclusions (ribosomal material) in cytoplasm
Dohle bodies
Dohle bodies are common in what species? and may be seen with chronic bacterial infection and some viral disease
feline
Dohle bodies usually indicate what?
mild toxemia
these can be seen in the lymphocyte and neutrophil. associated with septicemia. can also be artifact if sample is held for an extended time in anticoagulant. can range from a few to many. may cause foamy appearance, recorded as moderate to severe
cytoplasmic vacuoles
numerous large granules that range in color front dark purple/ red to black. seen in most infectious diseases. may be described by number or by severity. common in horses, rarely seen in other species
toxic granulation
nuclei with five or more lobes. aging change implies a nontoxic environment and prolonged circulation of neutrophils. most frequently seen with steroid use and stress leukograms
hypersegmentation
an increase in total number of neutrophils. often seen with inflammatory leukogram
neutrophilia
a decrease in circulating neutrophils. may occur as a result of severe inflammation. tissue demand is excessive and exceeds the ability of the bone marrow to supply neutrophils
neutropenia
these are necessary for the body to fight serious inflammation or infection
neutrophils
functional equivalent of a neutrophil in rabbits, rodents, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. also referred to as pseudoeosinophils. segmented nucleus and variably sized red/brown granules.
heterophils
bird granules can be what 2 shapes?
oval or needle shaped
much less common than neutrophils (absent or present in very low numbers in normal animals.
eosinophils

eosinophil functions to control what 2 things
allergic or anaphylactic hypersensitivity
these have a lobulated nucleus and red/orange/pink granules. these contain substances that destroy parasites and others that counteract effects of basophils
eosinophils
morphology of eosinophils in cats
tiny numerous rod-shaped granules
morphology of eosinophils in dogs/cattle
less numerous, round, and vary in size
morphology of eosinophils in horses
very large, round and stain bright orange
eosinophils last how many hours in blood stream
18-24
this may occur with parasitic disease or allergies
eosinophilia
these are involved in allergies and metabolic disorders. relatively rare in blood films. when present, usually occur in association with increased eosinophils
basophils
in what species are there few basophilic granules that stain purple to blue-black in basophils
canine
in what species are there many round granules that stain light lavenders in basophils
felin

in what species are basophils packed with granules and stain dark blue
equine/bovine
this is the second highest number of WBC in circulation. most numerous in cattle. grouped into B cells and T cells
lymphocytes

B cells in bone marrow are responsible for what
humoral immunity. making immunoglobulins
T cells in thymus gland are responsible for what
cell-mediated immunity
these are small to medium-sized mononuclear cells with a thin rim of light to dark blue cytoplasm and a round, often eccentric nucleus. 7-9um in diameter. cytoplasm may contain azurophilic (blue) granules. components of immune response
lymphocytes
cells with dark blue cytoplasm and a darker nucleus. seen in chronic infections. reported as few, moderate, or many
reactive lymphocytes
these develop in bone marrow. do not have a function within the bloodstream. circulate briefly before entering the tissue where they become macrophages
monocytes
phagocytize large particles and cellular debris that neutrophils cannot handle
macrophages
this is a very large WBC with diffuse, less dense nuclear chromatin. nucleus vary in shape. cytoplasm is blue-gray and abundant. nuclear-to-cytoplasm ratio is usually 1:1. vacuoles and/or small fine pink granules may be present
monocytes

these may be difficult to differentiate from bands, large lymphocytes or metamyeloctes that are toxic. involved in chronic inflammatory process
monocytes
this is caused by increased monocytes. can be seen with viral infections and chronic inflammation disease. (fungal infections or granulomas)
monocytosis
largest cell in the bone marrow. unlike other hematopoetic cells, it gets larger as it grows. cytoplasm eventually fragments into multiple irregular pieces that are released to circulation. these fragments are platelets
megakaryocyte
how many days does it take to release platelets
5 days
these are fragments of megakaryocytic cytoplasm. no nucleus, light granules may be visible. not classified as a cell. round to oval in shape, irregular edges.
platelets. aka thrombocytes
what is the normal life span of a platelet
10 days
what is the role of a platelet
to start clotting process by clumping together to plug damaged vessels
abnormally large platelets can indicate what
bone marrow disease or regenerative anemia
blood sample that sits in EDTA for several hours may cause the platelets to do what
swell
what are large platelets?
young platelets
a decrease in platelet number or function is known as what? it is a condition that affects bone marrow, bacterial and viral infection, immediately following severe hemorrhaging, decreased production of megakaryocytes, platelet destruction, long term antibiotic treatment
thrombocytopenia
this is an increase in platelets. response to disease, or following trauma
thrombocytosis
this invades platelets causing infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopenia (ICCT). leads to bleeding disorders and fevers in canines; nosebleeds, bleeding under skin. look very similar to platelets
anaplasma platys
what vector is anaplasma platys carried by
brown tick
what number of platelets seen on a blood smear per 100x field is considered adequate
8-10
what are 3 mechanisms of homeostasis
vascular response, platelet response, coagulation mechanism
how blood vessels respond to injury
vascular response
activation of platelets in clotting
platelet response
stimulation of the clotting cascade
coagulation mechanism
what is intrinsic
intravascular
what is extrinsic
tissue system
what 2 organs remove damaged platelets from circulation
liver and spleen
7 diseases associated with a secondary bleeding disorder
immunologic disease, leukemia, liver disease, splenic disease, uremia, exposure to radiation, DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation)
this type of test is used to diagnose various bleeding disorders and maintain homeostasis
coagulation test
coagulation tests are achieved by 3 interrelationships
vascular, platelets, clotting factors
6 types of coagulation tests
platelet count; buccal mucosal bleeding time; whole blood clotting time; prothrombin time (PT); partial thromboplastin time (PTT); fibrinogen activity test
normal value for whole blood clotting time for canine? equine?

canine: 2-10 min; equine: 4-15 min

clotting factors:


Factor I: ?


Factor II: ?


Factor III: ?


Factor IV: ?

I: Fibrinogen; II: Prothrombin; Factor III: Tissue Thromboplastin; Factor IV: Calcium

clotting factors:


Factor V: ?


Factor VII: ?


Factor VIII: ?


Factor IX: ?


Facotr X: ?

V: Proaccelerin


VII: Proconvertin


IX: Christmas factor


X: Stuart-Prower factor

clotting factors:


Factor XI: ?


Factor XII: ?


Factor XIII: ?

XI: plasma thromboplastin antecedent


XII: Hageman factor


XIII: Fibrin-stabilizing factor


anaplasma platys
what species?
what species?
avian

basophils

Dohle bodies

eosinophil

eosinophilic band cells

equine eosinophil

hypersegmented neutrophil

lymphocytes

metamyelocyte

monocyte

myelocyte

neutrophilic band cell

neutrophils

platelets

rabbit heterophil

reactive lymphocytes

toxic granulation

vacuolization