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86 Cards in this Set

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What is Chemistry?

Chemistry is the Study of Matter

What are Elements?

Elements are the basic substances that make up matter.

What is an Atom?

An Atom is the simplest unit of an element that retains the element's characteristics.

In chemistry, what is a Nucleus?

A Nucleus is the positively charged central core of an atom, consisting of protons and neutrons and containing nearly all its mass

What is an Atomic Number?

An Atomic Number is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom of that element.

What is an Energy Level?

An Energy Level is the amount of electrons in an electron shell in a particular element.

What is the Valence Level?

The Valence Level is the outermost occupied energy level of an element

What is a Covalent Bond?

A Covalent Bond is when atoms share electrons, resulting in a molecule such as in H2O

What is a Molecule?

A Molecule is two or more atoms held together by covalently shared electrons

What is a Compound?

A Compound is a molecule formed by to more more //different// atoms bound together chemically to form a unique substance

What is an Ion?

An Ion is an electrically charged atom or molecule

What is an Ionic Bond?

An Ionic Bond is a combination of oppositely charged Ions to form a molecule; Ionic Bonds are weaker than Covalent Bonds

What are Polar Molecules?

Polar Molecules are molecules that have regions of partial charge

What is a Hydrogen Bond?

A Hydrogen Bond is the force of attraction between water molecules (partially positive hydrogen are attracted to partially negative oxygen)

What is a Chemical Reaction?

A Chemical Reaction is what occurs when molecules interact with each other to form one or more molecules of another type.

What is an Endothermic Reaction?

An Endothermic Reaction is a reaction that requires energy input

What is an Exothermic Reaction?

An Exothermic Reaction is a reaction that releases energy

What is Free Energy?

Free Energy is the energy available to perform the work of a reaction

What does it mean to say that water has a high specific heat?

It resists changes in temperature

What gives water a high surface tension?

Hydrogen Bonds

What is the difference between acids and bases?

Acids donate protons when dissolved in water, and Bases accept protons or donate hydronium ions (H3O+) when dissolved in water

What does a pH scale measure?

A pH scale measures the concentration of H+ ions in a solution. Anything below a pH of 7 is acidic and anything above a pH of 7 is basic.

What is a Buffer?

A Buffer is an aqueous combination of a weak acid and its conjugate base, or a weak base and its conjugate acid. A Buffer solution resists a change in pH when new H+ or OH- ions are added.

What is an Organic Compound?

Organic Compounds are defined as those that contain carbon

What is a Polymer?

A Polymer is a chemical compound that is made of small molecules that are arranged in a simple repeating structure to form a larger molecule

What is a Monomer?

A Monomer is chemical compound that can undergo polymerization

What is a Carbohydrate?

A Carbohydrate is any one of various substances found in certain foods (such as bread, rice, and potatoes) that provide your body with heat and energy and are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

What is a Monosaccharide?

A Monosaccharide is a sugar that is not decomposable into simpler sugars by hydrolysis, is classed as either an aldose or ketose, and contains one or more hydroxyl groups per molecule —called also simple sugar

What is a Disaccharide?

A Disaccharide is any of a class of sugars (as sucrose) that yields on hydrolysis two monosaccharide molecules

What is an Isomer?

An Isomer is one of two or more compounds, radicals, or ions that contain the same number of atoms of the same elements but differ in structural arrangement and properties

What is a Polysaccharide?

A Polysaccharide is a carbohydrate that can be decomposed by hydrolysis into two or more molecules of monosaccharides; especially : one (as cellulose, starch, or glycogen) containing many monosaccharide units and marked by complexity

What is Cellulose?

Cellulose is a substance that is a long chain of water-insoluble polysaccharides and is the main part of the cell walls of plants and that is used in making various products (such as paper)

What is Glycogen?

Glycogen is a white amorphous tasteless polysaccharide (C6H10O5)x that is the principal form in which glucose is stored in animal tissues and especially muscle and liver tissue

What is a Lipid?

A Lipid is any of various substances that are soluble in nonpolar organic solvents (as chloroform and ether), that are usually insoluble in water, that with proteins and carbohydrates constitute the principal structural components of living cells, and that include fats, waxes, phosphatides, cerebrosides, and related and derived compounds

What is a Fat?

Fats are highly efficient lipid molecules used for long-term energy storage.

What is a Protein?

Proteins are large un-branched polymers made up of amino acid monomers

What is an Amino Acids?

Amino Acids are cyclical molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur and phosphorous.

What is an Enzyme?

Enzymes are a special proteins that act as catalysts for reactions

What does DNA stand for?

deoxyribonucleic acid

What does RNA stand for?

ribonucleic acid

What is a Nucleotide?

A Nucleotide is any of several compounds that consist of a ribose or deoxyribose sugar joined to a purine or pyrimidine base and to a phosphate group and that are the basic structural units of nucleic acids (as RNA and DNA)

What is a Nitrogenous Base?

A Nitrogenous Base is a nitrogen-containing molecule with basic properties

What are the Nitrogenous Bases for DNA?

They are Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine

What are the Nitrogenous Bases for RNA?

They are Adenine, Uracil, Cytosine, and Guanine

What are the three tenets of Cell Theory?

1. All living things are made up of one or more cells.




2. Cells are the basic unites of life.

3. All cells come from pre-existing cells.

What is an Electron Microscope?

An Electron Microscope is a very powerful microscope that uses a beam of electrons to produce a large image of a very small object

What is a Prokaryote?

A Prokaryote a microscopic single-celled organism that has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles. Prokaryotes include bacteria and cyanobacteria

What is a Eukaryote?

A Eukaryote is an organism consisting of a cell or cells in which the genetic material is DNA in the form of chromosomes contained within a distinct nucleus

What is a Plasma Membrane?

A Plasma Membrane is a semipermeable limiting layer of cell protoplasm —called also cell membrane

In biology, what is a Nucleus?

The Nucleus is the central part of most cells that contains genetic material and is enclosed in a membrane

What is Cytoplasm?

Cytoplasm is the organized complex of inorganic and organic substances external to the nuclear membrane of a cell and including the cytosol and membrane-bound organelles (as mitochondria or chloroplasts)

What is Cytosol?

Cytosol is the fluid portion of the cytoplasm exclusive of organelles and membranes —called also ground substance

What are Cytoplasmic Organelles?

Cytoplasmic Organelles are Organelles in the Cytoplasm.

What are Organelles?

An Organelle is a specialized cellular part (as a mitochondrion, lysosome, or ribosome) that is analogous to an organ

What is a Virus?

A Virus is an extremely small living thing that causes a disease and that spreads from one person or animal to another

What is a Phospholipid Bilayer?

A Phospholipid Bilayer is a two-layered arrangement of phospholipid molecules that form a cell membrane, with the hydrophobic lipid ends facing inward and the hydrophilic phosphate ends facing outward. Also called a lipid bilayer.

What is Selective Permeability?

Selective Permeability is the property of a cell membrane to allow certain molecules or ions to pass through it by means of active or passive transport.

What is Active Transport?

Active Transport is the movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energy

What is Passive Transport?

Passive transport is free movement of biochemicals and other atomic or molecular substances across cell membranes

What is Diffusion?

Diffusion is the movement of atoms or molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Atoms and small molecules can move across a cell membrane by diffusion.

What is Osmosis?

Osmosis is a process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one, thus equalizing the concentrations on each side of the membrane.

What is Facilitated Diffusion?

Facilitated Diffusion allows for the transfer of substances across the cell membrane with the help of specialized proteins. These proteins, which are embedded in the cell membrane, provide channels for specific molecules or ions and transport them through the membrane.

What is Endocytosis?

Endocytosis is incorporation of substances into a cell by phagocytosis or pinocytosis

What is Exocytosis?

Exocytosis is the release of cellular substances contained in cell vesicles by fusion of the vesicular membrane with the plasma membrane and subsequent release of the contents to the exterior of the cell

What is a Cell Membrane?

Cell Membrane is the Membrane of a Cell

What is an Endocytic Vesicle?

An Endocytic Vesicle is a membrane-bounded intracellular vesicle formed by invagination of the plasma membrane around an extracellular substance.

What are Microvilli?

A Microvillus is a microscopic projection of a tissue, cell, or cell organelle; especially : any of the fingerlike outward projections of some cell surfaces

What is Cytoskeleton?

Cytoskeleton is the network of protein filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm that controls cell shape, maintains intracellular organization, and is involved in cell movement. The three main parts of the Cytoskeleton are the Microtubules, Microfilaments, and Centrioles.

What are Microtubules?

Microtubules are long, hollow, cylindrical protein tubules, which give structure to the cell.

What are Microfilaments?

Microfilaments are double-stranded chains of proteins that serve to give structure to the cell

What are Centrioles?

A Centriole is one of a pair of cellular organelles that occur especially in animals, are adjacent to the nucleus, function in the formation of the spindle apparatus during cell division, and consist of a cylinder with nine microtubules arranged peripherally in a circle

What are Ribosomes?

Ribosomes are any of the RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules that are sites of protein synthesis

What's the difference between free ribosomes and attached ribosomes?

Free ribosomes are free floating in the cytoplasm, and attached ribosomes are attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

What is the Endoplasmic Reticulum?

Endoplasmic Reticulum is responsible for processing lipids, fats, and steroids, which are then packaged and dispersed by the Golgi apparatus

What is Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum?

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum is endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes, which makes the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum instrumental to protein synthesis.

What is Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum?

The Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum does not have attached ribosomes.

What is the Golgi Apparatus?

The Golgi Apparatus is instrumental in the storing, packaging, and shipping of proteins. It looks much like a stack of hollow pancakes.

What are Secretory Vesicles?

Secretory Vesicles are the cells shipping containers sent by the Golgi apparatis or the Endoplasmic Reticulum. Their shipments can exit the cell through exocytosis.

What are Lysosomes?

Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles containing digestive enzymes, which breakdown unused material within the cell.

What are Mitochondria?

Mitochondria are centers for cellular respiration

What are Cell Walls?

Cell Walls materials that surround plant cells and are strongly made of cellulose and lignin.

What are Chloroplasts?

Chloroplasts are found in plant cells and are the site of photosynthesis in plant cells.

What is the Central Vacuole?

The Central Vacuole takes of much of the volume of plant cells. It is a membrane-bound fluid filled space which stores water and nutrients

What is an Enzyme?

Enzymes are a special proteins that act as catalysts for reactions

What is an Active Site?

An Active Site is an enzyme's uniquely shaped area for a particular substrate

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