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135 Cards in this Set

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simplest organic compounds are

hydrocarbons


- only elements of carbon and hydrogen

alkenes

hydrocarbons that contain 1 or more carbon to carbon double bonds c=c


- double bonds are very reactive and easily add hydrogen atoms (hydrogenation) or water(hydration)

ethene (ethylene)

has double bond


- used to reiped fruit

ethyne (acetylene)

triple bond


- burns at high temps and used in welding metals

the study of carbon compounds



organic chemistry

organic compounds always contain

carbon, hydrogen and sometimes oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, phsophorus, or a halogen


- typically have low melting and boiling points,


- not soluble in water, less dense than water


- undergo combustion and burn bigorously in air

formulas of organic compounds are written with

carbon first, followed by hydrogen, then any other elements

high melting and boiling points

inorganic compounds

inorganic compounds that are ionic

ususally soluble in water and do not burn in air

molecules, mostly covalent, nonpolar unless a strongly electronegative atom is present, usually has low melting point, usually has a low boiling point, high flammability, not soluble in water unless a polar group is present

properties of organic compounds

mostly ions, many are ionic, some covalent, most are ionic or polar covalent, few are nonpolar covalent, usually high melting point, usually high boiling point, low flammability, most are soluble in water unless nonpolar

properties of inorganic compounds

organic compounds that consist of only carbon and hydrogen



hydrocarbons

in organic molecules every carbon atom has

4 bonds

space filling model

spheres show the relative size and shape of all the atoms

ball and stick model

atoms are shown as balls and the bonds between them are shown as sticks

wedge dash model

3d shape is represented by symbols of the atoms with lines for bonds

expanded structural formula

shows all of the atoms and bonds connected to each other


2d formula

condensed structural formula

shows the carbon atoms each grouped with the attached number of hydrogen atoms


- 2d formula

when all hydrocarbon bonds in the molecule are single bonds

saturated hydrocarbon

more than ___% of compounds in the world are organic

90%

a type of hydrocarbon in which the carbon atoms are connected only by single bonds


- methane, ethane, propane, butane


- end in -ane

alkenes

iupac (international union of pure and applied chemistry) system

system to name organic compounds

alkanes with 5 or more carbon atoms in a chain are named using

greek prefixes


pent =5


hex = 6


hept = 7


oct = 8


non = 9


dec = 10

line angle structural formula

each point and end of lines is a carbon atom


- 3 or more is zigzag

different arrangements of groups attached to carbons


- occur during the rotation about a single bond

conformations

an alkane that is a ring or cyclic structure


- have 2 or fewer hydrogen atoms than the corresponding alkanes

cycloalkanes

simples alkane

cyclopropane

3 carbons is

pro

4 carbons is

but

5 carbons is

pent

6 carbons is

hex

when an alkane has 4 or more carbon atoms the atoms can be arranged

so branch or substituent is attached to a carbon chain

group of atoms such as an alkyl group or a halogen bonded to the main carbon chain or ring of carbon atoms

subsituent

an alkane with at least 1 branch or substituent is called

branched alkane

when 2 compounds have the same molecular formula but different arrangements of atoms they are called

structural isomers

organic compounds in which identical molecular formulas have different arrangements of atoms

structural isomers

alkyl group

a carbon branch


- an alkane that is missing one hydrogen atom


- ends in -yl


- must be attached to a carbon chain


- named as a halo group

haloalkane

halogen atom replaces halogen atoms in a alkane

2,3, dimethylbutane

2,3= substituents on carbons 2 and 3 , di= two identical groups, methyl = -ch3 alkyl group , but - four c atoms in the main chain , ane = single c-c bonds

first 4 alkanes are gases at room temp and widley used as heating fluids

methane, ethane, propane, butane

alkanes having 5-8 carbon atoms (pentame, hexane, heptane, octane) are

liquid at room temp


0 highly volatile, useful as fuels such as gasoline

liquid alkanes with 9-17 carbon have

higher boiling points


- found in kerosene, diesel, jet fuels

alkanes with 18 r more carbon are

waxy solids at room temp


- paraffins

these have the lowest melting and boiling points ofa ll the organic compounds


- bc they contain only nonpolar bonds of c-c and c-h


- number of carbon increase = number of electrons increase, increases the attraction bc dispersion forces


- alkanes with higher masses have higher melting and boiling points

alkanes

boiling points of branched alkanes are

lower than the strain chain isomers

cycloalkanes have _____ boiling points than the straight chain alkanes with the same number of carbon atoms

higher boiling points

alkanes burn readily in oxygen to produce

carbon dioxide, water, and energy

energy in our bodies is produced by

combustion of glucose

alkanes are nonpolar so they are

soluble in nonpolar solvents

alkenes nd alkynes are families of hydrocarbons that contain

double or triple bonds


- are unsaturated hydrocarbons


- react with hydrogen gas to increase h atoms and become alkanes, which are saturated hydrocarbons

unsaturated hydrocarbons

do not contain the max number of hydrogen atoms

alkene vs alkane

alkene= hydrocarbon with double or triple bonds (unsaturated )


alkane= hydrocarbon with single bond (saturated)

contain one or more c=c double bonds that form when adjacent c atoms share two pairs of valence electrons

alkenes

ethene and ethylene

ripens fruit

alkyne

triple bond forms when two carbon atoms share three pairs of valence electrons

double bond within a ring structure

cycloalkenes


- if not substituent the double bond does not need a number

in alkene the double bond is rigid

no rotatio around the double bond


- atoms or groups are attached to carbon atoms in the double bond on one side or the other


- gives goemetric isomers or cis-trans isomers

cis isomer

same side of the double bond

trans isomer

opposite sides of the double bond


- more stable than cis bc groups are bigger and is farther apart

when an alkene has identical groups on the same carbon atom of the double bond, cis and trans isomers cannot be drawn

ya

alkenes add

atoms or groups of atoms to the carbon atoms in a double bond


- bc db are easily broken

alkene + H2

hydrogenation


- add hydrogen


- catalysts = pt, ni, pd


- produce alkane

alkene + H2O

hydration


- add water


- catalysts = H + strong acid


- produce alcohol

alkene + alkene

polymerization


- catalysts = high temp, pressure


- produce polymer

hydrogenated applied to

double bonds of an alkene


- double bonds are converted to single bonds in alkanes

unsaturated fats contain

double bonds

hydrogenation commercially

to convert double bonds in unsaturated fats to saturated which are more solid

an alkene reacts with water


- hydrogen atom from water forms a bond with 1 carbon atom in the double bond and the oxygen atom in oh forms a bond with the other carbon


- caratlyzed by strong acid

hydration

markovnikovs rules

when water adds to a double bond in which the carbon atoms are attached to different numbers of H atoms (asymmetrical double bond) the h and h oh attaches to the carbon that has the greater number of h atoms and oh adds to the other carbon atom from the double bond

polymer

large molecule that cnosists of monomers

monomers of plastic items

ethene, chloroethene, propene, tetrafluoroethene, dichloroethene, phenylethene

benzene

ring of 6 c atoms and 1 h atom attached to each c


- aromatic compounds


- has 1 valence electron


- alternating double bonds between carbons

ortho


- benzene ring as a substituent (named as a phenyl group)

1,2 arrangement

meta


- benzene ring as a substituent (named as a phenyl group)

1,3 arrangment

para


- benzene ring as a substituent (named as a phenyl group)


- more symmetric and have higher melting points

1,4 arrangments

halogenated benzene compounds are

denser than water

aromatic hydrocarbons are

insoluble in water and used as solvents for other organic compounds


- flammable

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs

formed by fusing together 2 or more benzene rings edge to edge


- neighboring benzene rings share two carbon atoms

compounds containing 5 or omre fused benzene ring are

potent carcinogens

organic compounds

- tend to be nonpolar with low melting points and boiling points and are usually insoluble in water and are usually flammable


- are drawn as expanded, condensed, and line angle structural formulas and named by the iupac system


- contain carbon atoms, that form four covalent bonds and have a tetra hedral shape


- alkanes with single bonds


- alkenes with double bond = can exist as cis- trans isomers and undergo hydrogenation (adds h2), hydration, polymerization, and forms products according to markovnikovs rules


- alkynes with triple bond


- aromatic compounds contain a benzene ring

iso

one line

sec

ethyl


2 lines

tert

methyl

organic compound

- always has carbon and hydrogen atoms


- may have nonmetals like oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, phosphorus, or a halogen


- often found in common products

methane is

tetrahedral and has bond angles at 109 degrees

- formed by continuous chain of carbon atoms


- named using iupac


- names end in ane


- use greek prefixes to name carbon chains with 5 or more carbon atoms

alkanes

iupac

international union of pure and applied chemistry

carbon atoms at the end of line angle structural formula are

bonded to three hydrogen atoms

carbon atoms in the middle of the line angle structural formula are

bonded to two hydrogen atoms

carbon atoms in a chain, connected by single c-c bonds

- can rotate so that groups attached to each carbon move freely about the c-c bond


- can have conformations

cycloalkanes

- cyclic alkanes


- 2 fewer hydrogen atoms than the open chain form


- named using the prefix cyclo before of the name of the alkane chain with the same number of carbon atoms

When an alkane has four or more carbon atoms, the atoms can be arranged so that a side group called a

branch or substituentis attached to a carbon chain.

•have the same molecular formula with a different arrangement of atoms.


•have the same number of atoms bonded in a different order.

Structural isomers

Butane (C4H10) has two structural isomers:

a straight chain and a branched chain.

Substituents are atoms or groups of atoms attached to the carbon chain and include

alkyl and halo groups.

Alkyl groups are

•groups of carbon atoms attached to carbon chains.


•named in the IUPAC system with an -yl ending.

Halo substituents are

•halogen atoms attached to the carbon chain. •named in the IUPAC system as fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo.

When one substituent is attached to a carbon atom in a cycloalkane,

•the name of the substituent is placed in front of the cycloalkane name.


•no number is needed for a single alkyl group or halogen atom.

Haloalkanes

•are alkanes with a halogen atom that replaces a hydrogen atom.


•are named by putting the substituents in alphabetical order.


•have the halo group numbered according to the carbon where it is attached to the alkane.

Alkanes with ______ carbons are gases at room temperature and are widely used as heating fuels. methane, ethane, propane, butane Butane has four carbons

one to four carbons

Alkanes with ______ carbons are highly volatile liquids at room temperature, which makes them useful as fuels. pentane, hexane, heptane, octane Octane has eight carbons

five to eight

Alkanes with _____carbons are liquids with higher boiling points and are found in motor oils, mineral oil, kerosene, diesel, and jet fuels. Decane has 10 carbons

9−17

•Alkanes with 18 or more carbon atoms, known as

paraffins, are waxy solids at room temperature.

•Petroleum jelly, or Vaseline, is a semisolid mixture of hydrocarbons with more than

25 carbon atoms.

Alkanes

•have the lowest melting and boiling points of organic compounds.


•contain only the nonpolar bonds of C — C and C —H.


•exhibit only weak dispersion forces in the solid and liquid states.

Longer-chain alkanes have

more dispersion forces.

Branched alkanes

•have lower boiling points than the straight-chain isomers.


•tend to be more compact, reducing the points of contact between the molecules.


•do not have linear shapes and cannot line up close to each other.

Alkanes are

•nonpolar. •insoluble in water. •less dense than water. •flammable in air. •found in crude oil.

Alkenes and alkynes are families of hydrocarbons that

•contain double and triple bonds, respectively. •are called unsaturated hydrocarbons because they do not contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms. •react with hydrogen gas to increase the number of hydrogen atoms and become alkanes.

carbon atoms always form

4 covalent bonds

Ethene(C2H4), more commonly called ethylene,

•is an important plant hormone involved in promoting the ripening of fruits such as bananas. •accelerates the breakdown of cellulose in plants, which causes flowers to wilt and leaves to fall from trees.

each carbon atom in the triple bond has a linear arrangement with bond angles of

180 degrees

Cycloalkenes have a double bond within a ring structure and

•are named by assigning the double bond to be between carbon 1 and carbon 2 when a substituent is on the ring. •do not need to include the numbers for the double bond.

•In a cis isomer,

the alkyl groups are attached on the same side of the double bond and H atoms are on the other side.

•In the trans isomer,

the groups and H atoms are attached on opposite sides of the double bond.

Pheromones may

•warn an insect of danger. •mark a trail. •attract the opposite sex.

In alkenes and alkynes, the double and triple bonds

•are very reactive and undergo hydrogenation, addition ofH — H, and hydration, addition of H — OH to the carbons in the double or triple bond. •undergo polymerization at high temperatures and pressure. •are easily broken, providing electrons to form new bonds.

•hydrogen atoms add to the carbon atoms of a double bond or triple bond. •a catalyst such as Pt, Ni, or Pd is used to speed up the reaction.

Inhydrogenation,

In hydration reactions, an alkene reacts with water, H — OH, to form an alcohol.

•A hydrogen atom (H —) from water forms a bond with the carbon atom in the double bond with more hydrogen atoms. •The — OH from water forms a bond with the second carbon atom in the double bond with fewer hydrogen atoms. •These reactions are catalyzed by a strong acid such as H2SO4.

polymerization reactions require

- high temp


- catalyst


- high pressure

_______ a polymer made from ethylene monomers, is used in plastic bottles, film, and plastic dinnerware.

Polyethylene

•Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is

flexible, breakable, less dense, and more branched than high-density polyethylene (HDPE).

______ is stronger and more dense than LDPE, and it melts at a higher temperature than LDPE.

•High-density polyethylene

michael faraday

isolated a hydrocarbon called a benzene

Benzene is

•an aromatic compound.•a ring of six C atoms, each bonded to one H atom. •a flat ring structure drawn with three alternating double bonds. •represented by two structures, because the electrons are shared equally among all the C atoms. •represented by a line-angle structural formula using a circle in the center instead of the alternating double bonds.

naming aromatic compounds

When a common name such as toluene, phenol, or aniline can be used, •the carbon atom attached to the methyl, hydroxyl, or amine group is numbered as carbon 1. •prefixes are used to show the position of the two substituents.

If three or more substituents are attached to the benzene ring, they are

numbered in the direction to give the lowest set of numbers and then named alphabetically.

The benzene ring is found in.

pain relievers such as aspirin, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen; and in flavorings such as vanillin


The benzene ring is also found in some amino acids (the building blocks of proteins)

Toluene is used as a

reactant to make drugs, dyes, and explosives such as TNT (trinitrotoluene).

The flat, symmetrical structure of ______ allows for interactions between the cyclic structures, which contributes to the higher melting points and boiling points of benzene and its derivatives.

benzene

•Aromatic compounds are ______ dense than water, although they are usually more dense than other hydrocarbons.

less

•Halogenated benzene compounds are _______ than water.

denser

•Aromatic hydrocarbons are______ in water and are used as solvents for other organic compounds.

insoluble

•Only aromatic compounds containing strongly polar functional groups such as — OH or — COOH will be somewhat soluble in water.

ya

•Benzene and other aromatic compounds are resistant to reactions that break up the aromatic system, although they are flammable.

ya