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31 Cards in this Set

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What is work?

Work is force applied over a distance





Equation for Work

W=F*d

What is heat?

Heat is the energy transferred from a hotter object to a colder object

Under what conditions is heat transferred from one object to another?
Heat is transferred from one object (system) to another until the two objects (systems) are at the same temperature.

When are q and w negative numbers?

q is negative when the system loses heat to the surroundings, w is negative when the system does work on the surroundings.

How to tell if a process is endothermic?

If kJ ia positive

How to tell if a process is exothermic

If kJ is negative

If the process is endothermic, does the internal energy of the system within the cylinder increase or decrease during the change?

increase

Under what condition will the enthalpy change of a process equal the amount of heat transferred into or out of the system?
When a process occurs under constant external pressure.
During a constant-pressure process, the system releases heat to the surroundings. Does the enthalpy of the system increase or decrease during the process?
The enthalpy of the system decreases.
What is the specific heat of liquid water?
4.184 J/g⋅∘C
What is the molar heat capacity of liquid water?
75.40 J/mol⋅∘C
What is meant by the term enthalpy of formation?
This is the enthalpy change that occurs when a compound is formed from its component elements.
the ripening of a banana,

spontaneous

dissolution of sugar in a cup of hot coffee

spontaneous

the reaction of nitrogen atoms to form N2 molecules at 25 ∘C and 1 atm

spontaneous

lightning

spontaneous

formation of CH4 and O2 molecules from CO2 and H2O at room temperature and 1 atm of pressure

nonspontaneous

In what temperature range is it a spontaneous process?
above 100 ∘C
In what temperature range is it a nonspontaneous process?
below 100 ∘C
At what temperature are the two phases in equilibrium?
100 ∘C
How does the entropy of the system change when a solid melts

increases

How does the entropy of the system change when a gas liquefies

decreases

How does the entropy of the system change when a solid sublimes

increases

How does the entropy of the system change when the temperature of the system increases?
increases
How does the entropy of the system change when the volume of a gas increases?
increases
How does the entropy of the system change when equal volumes of ethanol and water are mixed to form a solution?
increases

open system

one in which matter and energy can be exchanged with the surroundings

closed system

exchange energy, but not matter with its surroundings

isolated system

neither energy nor matter can be exchanged with the surroundings

Which of the following statements is false?
Like internal energy, enthalpy is an intensive property.