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21 Cards in this Set

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Which of the following is the name of the fluid in an insects open circulatory system?
hemolymph
How can flatworms, simple animals with a flat body shape. survive without a circulatory system?
In flatworms, all cells are located near central body branches or near the body surface, so diffusion alone can transport important nutrients.
Fishes have:
A two-chambered heart
Blood pressure tends to fall with increasing distance from the heart. On the basis of this information, which of the following lists the types of blood vessel, in order, from highest blood pressure to lowest?
arteries, capillaries, veins.
The heart beat in a vertebrate:
Is initiated by modified muscle tissue, the sinoatrial (SA) node, that contracts without nerve stimulation.
Both red blood cells and white blood cells are derived from cells in:
the bone marrow
Which of the following components of human blood is a cell fragment?
platelet
How are the blood-circulation system and the lymphatic system related to each other?
Blood carries nutrients and oxygen to cells and removes their waste. The lymphatic system removes bacteria and debris from the blood.
The polygraph, or "lie detector" test, functions by monitoring all of the following except:
Changes in oxygen content of the blood.
Why do most fishes swim with their mouths open?
they do this to ventilate their gills.
Carbon dioxide transport differs from oxygen transport in the circulatory systems of mammals, because:
CO^2 is transported mostly in the plasma, while O^2 is transported mostly in the red blood cells.
breathing in birds is more like "breathing" in fishes than in mammals, because:
oxygen never runs into a dead end.
Which of the following are the main muscles used in breathing?
intercostal muscles and diaphragm
With increasing temperatures:
aquatic animals must exert more energy to obtain oxygen.
Under regular metabolic conditions, what percentage of oxygen is released from the blood to the tissue?
25%
Why is carbon monoxide (CO) so dangerous?
CO prevents hemoglobin from binding to and transporting O^2 to the body tissues, resulting in oxygen starvation and death.
Myoglobin
releases O^2 to the muscles when partial pressure is such that hemoglobin cannot do so.
Which of the following has the highest binding affinity for oxygen?
myoglobin
Why does llama hemoglobin have a higher oxygen-buliding affinity than human hemoglobin?
Llamas live at higher elevations than most humans and require a means to bind O^2 when oxygen is at a lower concentration in the air.
Diphosphoglyceric acid (DPG)
Causes the release of more O^2 to body tissues.
Which of the following is not part of the "diving reflex" of the Weddell seal that allows seals to remain underwater for long periods of time?
Weddell seals have an increased resting heart rate, causing more efficient oxygen usage.