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43 Cards in this Set

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Renaissance

Meaning "rebirth"; following the Middle Ages, a movement that centered on the revival of


classical learning, and art.

Humanism

An intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements.

Secular

Concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters.

Patron

People who give encouragement, and financial support to the arts, or other endeavors.

Perspective

An artistic technique that creates the


appearance of three dimensions on a flat


surface.

Vernacular

The common language used by people instead of Latin, which was the traditional language used for writing, in the Middle Ages.

Utopia

A book by Sir Thomas More (1516) describing the perfect society on an imaginary island. The word actually means 'No Place'.

William Shakespeare

An English poet and playwright considered one of the greatest writers of the Elizabethan Age. His works include Julius Caesar, Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet, and Hamlet.

Johann Gutenberg

The man who invented the printing press that used movable type.

Indulgence

An official pardon for sins given by priests in


exchange for money.

Reformation

A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.

Lutheran

The first Protestant religion, based on Martin Luther's basic ideas about a Bible-based religion and justification by faith.

Protestant

A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.

Peace of Ausburg

Famous religious settlement signed in 1555


stating that German princes could chose either Lutheranism or Catholicism for their people. (No other religions were allowed.)

Annul

To declare invalid.

Anglican

A form of Protestantism set up in England by Henry VIII so he could obtain a divorce from his first wife. Henry made himself the head of the church.

Predestination

Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life.

Calvinism

Protestant religion started by John Calvin, which promoted the doctrine of predestination. He wrote the book 'Institutes of the Christian


Religion', which created a summary of


Protestant theology.

Theocracy

A government controlled by religious leaders.

Presbyterian

A protestant church governed by presbyters


(elders) and founded on the teachings of John Knox.

Anabaptist

A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion and thus be baptized. They also advocated non-violence, separation of church and state, and the sharing of all possessions.

Catholic Reformation

Also called the 'Counter Reformation', it was the Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation which reformed and revived Catholic doctrine.

Jesuits

Also known as the 'Society of Jesus' it was founded by Ignatius Loyola as a teaching and missionary order, to resist the spread of


Protestantism.

Council of Trent

Called by Pope Paul III, this meeting of Catholic bishops and cardinals clarified church doctrines in response to the Reformation.

Medici Family

A family, made wealthy by starting a banking


industry in Florence, they were major patrons to the arts during the renaissance.

Baldassare Castiglione

An Italian author who wrote the book "The Courtier", in 1528. He described how men could become courtiers, and the ideal Renaissance woman.

Isabella d'Este

She was a powerful ruler of the Italian city-state of Mantua. A skilled politician she defended her territory against invaders. She also built an


impressive art collection.

Leonardo Da Vinci

Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance. As a painter Leonardo is best known for 'The Last Supper' (c. 1495) and 'Mona Lisa' (c. 1503).

Michelangelo Buonarroti

Italian Renaissance sculptor, architect, painter, and poet, who used a realistic style in depicting human figures. His work includes; 'The Pieta', the 'David', and he painted the ceiling of the


Sistine Chapel.

Donatello

Italian sculptor renowned as a pioneer of the Renaissance style with his natural, lifelike


figures.

Raphael Sanzio

A Renaissance painter who learned from the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo. He was


famous for his use of Perspective.

Sofonisba Anguissola

The first female artist to gain international


prestige. She painted the portraits of many


famous people of the time.

Artemisia Gentileschi

Artemisia Gentileschi is credited as one of the greatest female painters of the Baroque period. She developed her artistic skills with the help of her father, Orazio Gentileschi. She painted


pictures of strong, heroic women.

Dante'

He was a famous Medieval writer who would write in the native language of the people


(Vernacular).

Francesco Petrarch

He was known as the father of Renaissance


humanism, and was one of the most influential humanists of the time. He was also known for his poetry, particularly sonnets.

Sonnets

A 14 line poem.

Giovanni Boccaccio

A writer know for his series of realistic, but racy stories called the "Decameron".

Niccolo Machiavelli

He was famous for his political book "The Prince", which outlined how a ruler might take power from his enemies without regard to any ethical feelings of write and wrong.

Vittoria Colonnas

She was an influential Renaissance poet, who helped other writers get recognized. In her own works she mostly wrote about her personal


feelings.

Albrecht Durer

He was a German artist who is famous for his woodcuts and engravings which showed


religious or mythological themes.

Hans Holbein the Younger

He was a German artist who moved to England and painted portraits that were so detailed they look almost like photographs.

Jan van Eyck

The first great Flemish painter who perfected the use of oil paints.

Peter Bruegel the Elder

The Flemish painter who portrayed detailed scenes of everyday peasant life.