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20 Cards in this Set

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Brainstem

connects to the spinal cord with the brain via diencephalon-also serves as a bridge between the cerebellum and all other CNS structures.

Midbrain

also called mesoencephalon, it is a narrow structure that lies superior (above) to the pons and inferior (below) to the diencephalon. Contains cranial nerve IV and III (not involved in speech production.

Pons

also called metencephalon, round structure which bridges two halves of the cerebellum and located inferior (below) to the midbrain. Contains cranial nerves V and VII-involved with speech, hearing, and balance.

Medulla

also called myelencephalon, it is the upper most portion of the spinal cord. It is very important for speech production because it contains descending fibers that transmit motor information to several cranial nerve nuclei-cranial nerves VIII, IX, X, XI, XII.

RAS-Reticular activating system

located within the midbrain, brainstem, and upper portion of the spinal cord, integrates motor impulses flowing out of the brain with sensory impulses flowing into it.

Diencephalon

lies above the midbrain and between the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres-it contains the thalamus and hypothalamus.

Thalamus

largest structure in diencephalon and it regulates sensory information that flows into the brain and relays sensory impulses to various portions of the cerebral cortex. It is critical for maintenance of consciousness and alertness.

Hypothalamus

lies inferior to the thalamus, helps integrate the actions of the ANS (autonomic nervous system) and controls emotions.

basal ganglia

structures deep within the brain that are located near the thalamus and lateral ventricles-composed of gray matter. Recieves input primarily from the frontal lobe and relays information back to the higher centers of the brain via the thalamus.

cerebellum

called the "little brain" consists of two hemispheres. Fiber bundles (superior, middle, and inferior cerebellar peduncles) serve as connections between the brainstem and cerebellum. This regulates equilibrium (balance), body posture, and fine motor movements.

cerebrum

or cerebral cortex is the biggest and most important structure in the CNS for speech, language, and hearing.

gyrus

ridge on the cortex

sulcus

shallow valley on the surface of the brain

fissures

deeper valleys-boundaries between the broad divisions of the cerebrum.

frontal lobe

located on the anterior portion of the cerebrum in front of the central fissue and above the lateral fissure. Contains structures critical to speech production (primary motor cortex, supplementary motor cortex, and broca's area). Deliberates the formation of plans and intentions that dictate a person's concsious behavior.

Broca's area

a motor speech center-controls motor movements involved in speech production.

parietal lobe

located on the upper sides of the cerebrum behind the frontal lobe and is the primary sensory somatic area. Integrates somesthetic sensations such as pressure, pain, temperature, and touch. Includes important structures such as, postcentral gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and angular gyrus.

occipital lobe

lies behind the parietal lobe-not very relevant to speech and hearing because it is primarily concerned with vision. Primary visual cortex is a major structure here.

temporal lobe

lowest one-third of the cerebrum-inferior to the frontal and parietal lobes and in front of the occipital lobe. Includes three major gyri: superior temporal, middle temporal, and inferior temporal gyri. Includes two general areas critical to speech and hearing-primary motor cortex and auditory association area.

wernicke's area

located in the temporal lobe-critical to the comprehension of spoken and written language and is connected to the Broca's area via the arcuate fasciculus.