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32 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is cell theory?
All living things are composed of cells. The cell is the basic unit of life. Cels come from other cells.
Who first used the term "cell"? Describe the situation.
Robert Hooke was looking at a sliver of cork through a microscope and saw divisions he thought looked like prison cells.
Who was the father of microscope?
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
What did Van Leeuwenhoek see with his microscope?
Bacteria, yeast plants, life teeming inside a droplet of pond water. "Animalcules"
Why did Matthias Schleiden do?
One of the founders of the cell theory. He studied plant cells underneath a microscope, and found that a whole plant arises from one cell.
What did Theodor Schwann do?
contributions to biology include the development of cell theory, the discovery and study of pepsin, the discovery of the organic nature of yeast, and the invention of the term metabolism.
What did Theodor Schwann do?
contributions to biology include the development of cell theory, the discovery and study of pepsin, the discovery of the organic nature of yeast, and the invention of the term metabolism.
What did Rudolf Virchow do?
Disease originated in cells; every cell originates from another cell
What is cell theory?
•All living organisms are composed of cells. They may be unicellular or multicellular.
•The cell is the basic unit of life.
•Cells arise from pre-existing cells
What does a compound microscope do?
Compound microscopes are light illuminated. The image seen with this type of microscope is two dimensional. This microscope is the most commonly used. You can view individual cells, even living ones. It has high magnification. However, it has a low resolution.
What does a transmission electron micrscope do?
TEM is electron illuminated. This gives a 2-D view. Thin slices of specimen are obtained. The electron beams pass through this. It has high magnification and high resolution.
What does a scanning electron micrscope do?
SEM use electron illumination. The image is seen in 3-D. It has high magnification and high resolution. The specimen is coated in gold and the electrons bounce off to give you and exterior view of the specimen. The pictures are in black and white.
What does a scanning probe microscope do?
allow scientists to image, characterize and even manipulate material structures at exceedingly small scales including features of atomic proportions. The family of scanning probe microscopes uses no lenses, but rather a probe that interacts with the sample surface.
What is a prokaryote cell?
A cell that has no nucleus
What is a eukaryote cell?
an organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within membranes; All species of large complex organisms are eukaryotes, including animals, plants and fungi
What are organelles?
"little organs". Basically this means that organelles have specific roles to play in how cells work just like organs help the body to function properly as a whole.
What is cytoplasm?
salt water with additional nutrients, salts (ions), and waste products. Organelles are suspended in the cytoplasm and the cell membrane separates the cytoplasm from the outside of the cell. The cytoplasm is gel-like (like Jello.)
What is a nucleus?
acts as the control center for the cell. It contains DNA that directs all functions of the cell.
What are ribosomes?
Their job is to assemble amino acids into proteins under the direction of the cell's DNA.
What is endoplasmic reticulum?
It is where certain molecules are synthesized, stored, and transported. Some endoplasmic reticulum (called smooth, no ribosomes) is where fatty acids, steroids, and lipids are made. Some E.R., called rough (with ribosomes), is where proteins are made.
What is the Golgi apparatus?
Protein arrives at the Golgi in transport vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum and leaves the Golgi packaged in membrane-bound vesicles to go to other organelles or to the outside of the cell.
What are lysosomes?
hold chemicals that break down food molecules, old cell parts, and harmful bacteria. They are surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane that keeps their strong digestive chemicals contained inside. Thus, the lysosomes have similar functions to the digestive system of the body.
What are vacuoles?
organelles with lipid bilayer membranes inside plant cells. They store salts, sugars, a few proteins, and sometimes plant colors. They act as storage bags for the cell.
What are mitochondria?
Mitochondria are where the cell's energy (ATP) is made. Thus mitochondria are sometimes called the cell's powerhouse.
What are chloroplasts?
Plant cells only; organelles in plants similar to mitochondria. They are the organelles that can carry out photosynthesis.
What is a cytoskeleton?
cellular "scaffolding" or "skeleton" contained within a cell's cytoplasm and is made out of protein. The cytoskeleton is present in all cells
What is the nucleolus?
The prominent structure in the nucleus is the nucleolus. The nucleolus produces ribosomes.
What is cytosol?
The cytosol is the "soup" within which all the other cell organelles reside and where most of the cellular metabolism occurs. Though mostly water, the cytosol is full of proteins that control cell metabolism
What is a centrisome?
The centrosome, or MICROTUBULE ORGANIZING CENTER (MTOC), is an area in the cell where microtubules are produced.
What is a peroxisome?
Peroxisomes are membrane-bound packets of oxidative enzymes. In plant cells, peroxisomes play a variety of roles including converting fatty acids to sugar and assisting chloroplasts in photorespiration. In animal cells, peroxisomes protect the cell from its own production of toxic hydrogen peroxide
What is a centriole?
Each centriole is a ring of nine groups of fused microtubules. There are three microtubules in each group. Microtubules (and centrioles) are part of the cytoskeleton.
What is the secretory vesicle?
Cell secretions - e.g. hormones, neurotransmitters - are packaged in secretory vesicles at the Golgi apparatus. The secretory vesicles are then transported to the cell surface for release.