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13 Cards in this Set

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first step of cell signaling

Synthesis, release, and transport of signaling molecules

Second step of cell signaling

Reception Of information by target cells

Third step of cell signaling

Signal transduction, the process by which a receptor convert an extra cellular signal into an intra-cellular signal and relays a signal, leading to a cellular response

Fourth step of cell signaling

Response by the cell, for example some metabolic process may be altered

Paracrine regulation

Any local regulator is a signaling molecule that diffuses through the interstitial fluid, the fluid surrounding the cells, and acts on nearby cells; hormones

Direct cell communication

Gap junctions in animal cells allow rapid chemical and electrical communication between adjacent cells; cardiac muscle cells the heart wall contract

Synaptic cell communication

In animal some neurons communicate with electrical signals most neurons however signal one another by releasing chemical compounds called neurotransmitters

G protein receptors

Transmembrane proteins that extend into the cytosol or outside the cell. These receptors couple specific signaling molecules to signal transduction pathways inside the cell. The tale of the receptor that extends into the cytosol a binding site for a specific G protein, regulatory proteins that binds to GTP

Enzyme linked receptors

Transmembrane proteins with a binding site for a signaling molecules outside the cell and a binding site for the enzyme inside the cell. Tyrosine Kinases

Ion Channel Linked receptors

That ion channel opens or in some cases closes

Intracellular receptors

Located in the cytosol or in the nucleus. There ligands or small, hydrophobic molecules that diffuse across the plasma membrane

Transduction pathway

Regulatory molecules transmit information to the cells interior without physically crossing the plasma membrane

Three types of responses to receptor binding to Ligands

1. Ion channels open or close


2. Enzyme activity is altered, Leading to metabolic changes and other effects


3.Genetic activity may be turned on or off