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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
matter
anything that takes up space and has mass
element
substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions
compound
substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio
essential elements
20 to 25% of the 92 elements essential to healthy life
trace elements
required by an organism in only minute quantities
atom
smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element
neutrons
neutral charge, in the nucleus, mass of 1
protons
positive charge, in the nucleus, mass of 1
electrons
negative charge, in the electron cloud, mass of 0
atomic nucleus
center of atom, contains protons and neutrons
atomic number
number of protons
mass number or atomic mass
neutrons + protons
isotopes
same atom different number of neutrons
radioactive isotopes
nucleus decays spontaneously, or the nucleus has the tendency to lose particles, unstable
energy
capacity to change
potential energy
energy matter possesses because of location and structure, most common in the form of chemical energy
electron shells
levels of energy at different distances from the nucleus
valence electrons
outer electrons
valence shell
outermost shell
orbital
dimension in space where an electron can be found 90% of the time
chemical bonds
attractions that hold atoms close together
covalent bond
sharing a pair of valence electrons by two atoms
molecule
two or more atoms of the same type held together by covalent bonds
single or double bonds
sharing one or two electrons at a time
valence
bonding capacity, usually equals the number of unpaired electrons required to complete the atom’s outermost shell
electronegativity
attraction of a particular atom for the electrons of a covalent bond
nonpolar covalent bond
electrons are shared equally
polar covalent bond
electrons are not shared equally
ion
charged atom or molecule (not neutral)
cation
positively charged ion
anion
negatively charged ion
ionic bond
cations and anions are attracted to each other
ionic compounds or salts
compounds formed by ionic bonds
hydrogen bond
when partially positively charged hydrogen is bonded to an electronegative atom the hydrogen is attracted to a different electronegative atom nearby
van der waals interactions
this can occur in both polar and nonpolar bonds, atoms are not arranged symmetrically so there are regions of positive or negative charge that enable all atoms and molecules to stick to one another
chemical reactions
making and breaking of chemical bonds that lead to changes in the composition of matter
reactants
starting materials of a chemical reactions
products
what you get out of a chemical reaction
chemical equilibrium
forward and reverse reactions occur at the same rate, there can be change but ultimately they are balanced
strongest bonds
covalent bonds and iconic bonds