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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What were Britons or Celts?
very good metalworkers, carpenters, weavers, farmers
exported grain, cattle, gold, silver, iron, hunting dogs, slaves
Why did Romans not usually recognize Celtic achievements?
Romans had urban-centered idea of civilization.
Celts were tribal, agricultural people and Britannia mostly a rural province
What things in common between all Celtic tribes
all spoke Celtic language (basis of Welsh, Irish, and Gaelic today)
all used iron weapons
all ruled my kings/queens advised my council of warriors
what is a chieftain
wealthy landowner who controlled small area and owed his loyalty to king/queen
maintained a band of warriors who practiced fighting skills by hunting and raiding other tribes
what characterized Celtic art
abstract rhythmic patterns, spiral curves, stylized imaginary animals
most art found decorating everyday objects made of pottery and various metals
who controlled Celtic religion
Druids, powerful priests who were judges in disputes, kept oral traditions and knowledge of tribe, worshiped gods in sacred woodlands with ceremonies sometimes including human sacrifice
encouraged fierce resistance to Roman invasion
first Roman general to lead soldiers into Britain
Julius Caesar in 55 bc
what did Caesar write about British inhibiants
fierce warriors, living on good agricultural or pasture land in country rich in timber and materials
Skills not only farming but pottery making and iron and bronze working
Why did Ceasar want to invade britain
wanted to find out if it was worth Roman troop occupation
but after another short visit in 54 bc, didn't explore further due to wars against Gauls and own Roman gov. assassinated decade later
Who is Caesar's great-nephew
Augusts, first roman emperor
he an immediate successors didn't think Britain worth conquering troule
who did sucessfully conquer Britain
Emperor Claudius
perhaps he received fresh information on British wealth; more probably needed military success for prestige
how did Claudius conquer britain
didn't lead force but followed it , spending 16 days in Britain, watching army's assault on Camulodunum (Colchester) and giving official approval to actions of commander Aulus Plautius
11 kings surrendered
first governor of Britain
Aulus Plautius
who is Britain's most famous governor
Gnaeus Julius Agricola
what did Britain's most famous governor do
put end to Scottish resistance in ad 84 at battle of Mons Graupius in Scotland
stopped civic corruption and tax collection abuses
wanted to give Britons a live peace and civilization comforts
educated sons of chiefs
how did Roman style influence Britain
British farmers built country villas in Roman style. towns were rebuilt on roman grid system, centered on forum, with its town hall and law court and other public buildings.
Romans were tolerant of other religions and many Celtic gods were assimilated into roman pantheon: Apollo-Maponus, Mars-Cocidius, Sulis-Minerva
what is Salvius's full name
Gaius Salvius Liberalis
early life and career of Salvius?
born in central Italy, like many ambitious and clever young men, moved to Rome, where he got reputation for speaking his mind
future career of Salvius?
after becoming successful lawyer, made senator, probably by Emperor Vespasian. in ad 78, at early age, he was chosen as one of the Arval brotherhood
also put in command of legion
what is Arval brotherhood
group of twelve distinguished men who met to perform religious ceremonies and in particular to pray for emperor and family
what were Salvius's tasks in Britain
supervise law courts and look after southern part of province while Agricola was fighting in north. traveled around country acting as judge. may have arranged for money to be sent to emperor in Rome
where does Salvius and wife Rufilla live in this book?
impressive villa not far from Noviomagus (Chichester) on south-east coast of Britain
where does knowledge of Salvius come from
mainly from details on gravestone discovered in central Italy and inscription found in wood near Rome. mentioned by Roman writers Pliny and Suetonius. another gravestone dedicated by son