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48 Cards in this Set

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1. The most recent techniques developed in the biological sciences allow the manipulation of DNA with the ultimate goal of intervening directly with the _______ fate of organisms.
A. genetic
B. developmental
C. adult
D. mitotic

A. genetic

2. Small circular, extrachromosomal DNA segments are known as _______.
A. vectors
B. plasmids
C. clones
D. RNA

B. plasmids

3. Enzymes that cleave DNA at specific sites are called _____________.
A. vectors
B. peptidases
C. restriction endonucleases
D. DNAses

C. restriction endonucleases

4. Single-stranded complementary tails that are produced by restriction digestion are called ______ ends.
A. sticky
B. orphaned
C. vectors
D. 5'

A. sticky

5. Bacterial plasmids and artificial chromosomes are used as ______ to insert foreign DNA into host cells and create recombinant genomes.
A. clones
B. vectors
C. endonucleases
D. subunits

B. vectors

6. Gel ________ is a process that separates DNA or protein fragments according to their size, by causing them to migrate within a gel in response to an electric field.
A. duplication
B. blotting
C. electrophoresis
D. migration

C. electrophoresis

7. The _________ from Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used in genetic engineering involving crop plant genes.
A. restriction endonucleases
B. DNA
C. Ti vector
D. Ti plasmid

D. Ti plasmid

8. A ______ vaccine is produced by using only the non-infectious part of the viral genome.
A. immunization
B. subunit
C. bacterial
D. prokaryotic

B. subunit

9. You want to insert your favorite gene, which has been digested with Ncol endonuclease on both ends, into a vector. Ncol recognizes the DNA sequence C*CATGG. The vector you want to use contains many endonuclease recognition sites, but does not include an Ncol site. Which restriction endonuclease would be the most suitable replacement to digest the vector?
A. Sphl - G*CATGC
B. Sunl - C*GTACG
C. Kpnl - GGTAC*C
D. CViAll - C*ATG

A. Sphl - G*CATGC

10. Single-stranded ends generated by the same restriction enzyme are complementary to each other. They can be joined together,
A. even when the source of the DNA is different.
B. only when the source of the DNA is the same.
C. but the "sticky ends" will most likely have to be modified.
D. but the hybridization of the two ends may cause a problem with cloning.
E. only if the subunits have been methylated.

A. even when the source of the DNA is different.

11. Two strands of DNA that have been cut by an endonuclease can be sealed together by a(n)
A. polymerase enzyme.
B. ligase enzyme.
C. exonuclease enzyme.
D. protease enzyme.
E. methylase enzyme.

B. ligase enzyme.

12. In Southern blotting, the probe is made of RNA or single-stranded DNA. What kind of probe should be used in a Northern blot?
A. only RNA
B. only single-stranded DNA
C. double-stranded DNA
D. RNA or single-stranded DNA

D. RNA or single-stranded DNA

13. All of the following involve molecular biology techniques except
A. ligating DNA fragments together.
B. using restriction enzymes to cut specific sequences of DNA.
C. using a DNA polymerase to copy DNA via PCR.
D. creation of Okazaki fragments.

D. creation of Okazaki fragments.

15. Restriction enzymes are
A. proteases.
B. lipases.
C. endonucleases.
D. exonucleases.

C. endonucleases.

16. An enzyme that has been isolated from retroviruses and is used to generate cDNA is
A. transverse ligase.
B. reverse transcriptase.
C. reverse endonuclease.
D. recombinant RNase.
E. RNA polymerase.

B. reverse transcriptase.

17. Identify a sequence that is most likely to be recognized by a restriction enzyme.
A. GATC
B. CCCTTT
C. TGGCCA
D. TCATCA

C. TGGCCA

18. The most common way to follow bacterial transformation with a plasmid is by
A. manufacturing the bacterial protein.
B. conferring antibiotic resistance.
C. separating the altered cell surface.
D. making the cells immortal.
E. altering the physical appearance of the cells.

B. conferring antibiotic resistance.

19. You have discovered a very small amount of DNA from an ancient organism that you want to save and study. Assuming the genetic code is the same as in modern DNA, what is the best way to manipulate the DNA so you can study it in the lab?
A. Southern blotting
B. Gel electrophoresis
C. PCR amplify the DNA
D. Insert the DNA into a vector

C. PCR amplify the DNA

20. A researcher wants to use a molecular technique to find the DNA sequence ATGGGCCAGCT in the genome of mice. He should use the __________ technique, with __________ as a probe.
A. Western blotting; TACCCGGTCGA
B. Southern blotting; ATGGGCCAGCT
C. Southern blotting; TACCCGGTCGA
D. gel electrophoresis; DNA dye
E. gel electrophoresis; ATGGGCCAGCT

C. Southern blotting; TACCCGGTCGA

22. If the lacZ gene is functional it produces an enzyme known as ____________, which allows the bacterial cell to metabolize the sugar, X-gal.
A. beta-glucosidase
B. beta-xylosidase
C. gamma-endonuclease
D. alpha-galactosidase
E. beta-galactosidase

E. beta-galactosidase

23. A commercially significant human protein now produced in bacteria is
A. hemoglobin.
B. gamma globulins.
C. AZT.
D. human insulin.
E. HIV vaccine.

D. human insulin.

24. Which step of PCR is most likely to require a heat stable polymerase?
A. Synthesis
B. Annealing of primers
C. Denaturation
D. PCR does not require a heat stable polymerase.

C. Denaturation

25. Crop plants have been protected from certain insects by the addition of a gene for a specific insect toxin from the bacterium
A. Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
B. Bacillus thuringiensis.
C. Herpes simplex.
D. Pseudomonas.
E. tobacco mosaic.

B. Bacillus thuringiensis.

26. Scientists can distinguish between DNA of different individuals, thus making this information useful in criminal investigations. The technique used is called
A. restriction fragment length polymorphisms.
B. societal polymorphisms.
C. hybridization polymorphisms.
D. Southern Blot.
E. molecular hybridization.

A. restriction fragment length polymorphisms.

27. A subunit vaccine is being developed for a newly discovered virus. Mammalian cells would be used to create a subunit vaccine composed of
A. recombinant vaccinia virus with mRNA from the newly discovered virus.
B. recombinant vaccinia virus with the outside coat of the newly discovered virus.
C. recombinant vaccinia virus with the outside coat of the hepatitis virus.
D. the newly discovered virus with the outside coat of the vaccinia virus.

B. recombinant vaccinia virus with the outside coat of the newly discovered virus.

28. Some of the useful applications of genetic engineering include all of the following except
A. bacteria that can digest oil in an oil spill.
B. growing glyphosate-resistant cotton.
C. development of hybrid corn to increase yield.
D. creation of Golden Rice.
E. salmon expressing a transgenic growth hormone gene.

C. development of hybrid corn to increase yield.

29. A key difference between transforming plant cells and human cells is
A. genes to be expressed in human cells require a eukaryotic promoter, and genes to be expressed in plants don't.
B. DNA cannot be introduced into human cells.
C. Agrobacterium is commonly used as a tool to directly transform plant cells but not human cells.
D. a vector is needed to introduce DNA into human cells and not plant cells.

C. Agrobacterium is commonly used as a tool to directly transform plant cells but not human cells.

30. Imagine a small section of the human population evolved the requirement to make their own aromatic amino acids. How would eating glyphosate-resistant plants affect these individuals?
A. No effect.
B. They would become very sick from the glyphosate that was sprayed on the plants.
C. They would also become glyphosate-resistant.
D. They would no longer need to make their own aromatic amino acids.

B. They would become very sick from the glyphosate that was sprayed on the plants.

31. An insecticidal protein has been discovered in a bacterium known as
A. Escherichia coli.
B. Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
C. Bacillus thuringiensis.
D. Aspergillus sp.


C. Bacillus thuringiensis.

33. A fourth type of restriction enzyme is identified that cleaves at precise locations like a type II enzyme, but it also occasionally makes mistakes and cuts elsewhere. Would this type of enzyme be a useful enzyme to use in molecular cloning?
A. Yes, because it cuts correctly sometimes.
B. No, because it is a precise enzyme.
C. No, because cutting mistakes could lead to incorrect cloning.
D. Yes, because cutting mistakes don't matter in molecular cloning.

C. No, because cutting mistakes could lead to incorrect cloning.

34. A new vector contains a gene for GFP, green fluorescent protein in the multiple-cloning site. When the vector is transformed into bacteria, the bacteria glow green, but they won't if another gene is inserted. This is an example of
A. an origin of replication.
B. reverse genetics.
C. gene therapy.
D. insertional inactivation.

D. insertional inactivation.

35. Technique used to amplify a desired piece of DNA.
A. gel electrophoresis
B. RFLP
C. PCR
D. plasmids
E. Northern Blot

C. PCR

36. A nucleotide change from T to C in a green pigment protein is responsible for certain cases of colorblindness. To test if someone who is colorblind has this mutation, you should use
A. gel electrophoresis.
B. molecular cloning.
C. RNAi.
D. RFLP analysis.

D. RFLP analysis.

37. Organisms containing DNA from an outside source are called
A. transcribed organisms.
B. compound organisms.
C. hybrid organisms.
D. plasmid organisms.
E. transgenic organisms.

E. transgenic organisms.

39. Bam HI is a Type II restriction enzyme that recognizes the sequence 5' GGATCC 3', and cuts between the two Gs, leaving a 5' overhang. If you were to digest DNA with Bam HI, what would be the sequence of the overhanging sticky end of the complementary strand?
A. 5' GATCC 3'
B. 5' GATC 3'
C. 5' CTAG 3'
D. 5' G 3'

B. 5' GATC 3'

40.


A 6.85 kb EcoRI fragment of DNA is shown below. The location of several restriction sites is indicated. Scale is approximate.





If you were to digest this fragment of DNA with Pst I, how many pieces of DNA would you obtain?



A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4

C. 3

41.


A 6.85 kb EcoRI fragment of DNA is shown below. The location of several restriction sites is indicated. Scale is approximate.



If you were to digest this DNA with PstI, which length of DNA fragment would migrate the fastest on an agarose gel?



A. 803
B. 2622
C. 3425
D. 235

A. 803

42. You are trying to clone a piece of DNA into a plasmid vector that exhibits blue-white selection. Following ligation and transformation, you plate the host cells onto several plates containing the appropriate selective media. The next day you examine the bacterial colonies that grew. Which of the following plates should you select to proceed with the analysis of possible transformants?
A. 3 white colonies, 50 blue colonies
B. 97 white colonies, 105 blue colonies
C. 43 white colonies, 6 blue colonies
D. 238 blue colonies

C. 43 white colonies, 6 blue colonies

43. A researcher identified a new enzyme and is interested in determining the mRNA expression pattern of this gene. Which of the following techniques would accomplish this goal?
A. Southern blot
B. Northern blot
C. Western blot
D. Eastern blot

B. Northern blot

44. You are hired as a scientific consultant for a popular television show about forensic analysis of crime scene evidence. You are told that in an upcoming scene, investigators will compare the DNA profiles of a known suspect and an unknown biological sample collected from the victim. You are asked to write up a brief explanation of the primary technique required for discussion in the scene. Which technique should you write about?
A. DNA fingerprinting
B. DNA footprinting
C. Northern blot
D. RNAi

A. DNA fingerprinting

45. Which of the following types of information would be most useful in an effort to move a DNA fragment from one plasmid vector to another, using molecular cloning techniques?
A. restriction fragment length polymorphism data
B. sequence of PCR primers
C. Southern blot data
D. restriction maps of the plasmids

D. restriction maps of the plasmids

46. Which of the following two enzymes are needed to construct a cDNA library?
A. reverse transcriptase and DNA ligase
B. reverse transcriptase and Taq polymerase
C. DNA ligase and Taq polymerase
D. Taq polymerase and RNA polymerase

A. reverse transcriptase and DNA ligase

47. The development of PCR has revolutionized molecular biology and has led to numerous advances in basic research, as well as in medicine and forensic science. Which of the following areas does not rely on PCR?
A. Diagnosis of genetic diseases
B. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA from early human species
C. Generation of hybrid plants
D. Identifying individuals involved in crimes

C. Generation of hybrid plants

50. In order to make a successful subunit vaccine you need
A. protein purified from the pathogen of interest.
B. the complete DNA sequence of the pathogen.
C. DNA sequence for a protein expressed on the surface of the pathogen.
D. active pathogen.

C. DNA sequence for a protein expressed on the surface of the pathogen.

51. A major new breakthrough for gene therapy would be
A. the ability to deliver RNAi gene therapy.
B. the ability to add a working copy of a missing gene.
C. the ability to insert genes into a specific location in the human genome.
D. the ability to insert genes randomly in the human genome.

C. the ability to insert genes into a specific location in the human genome.

53. Methane produced by cows is a major environmental issue. Scientists are working to genetically modify cows to produce less gas. This concept is most similar to
A. the Enviropig.
B. large transgenic salmon.
C. dog breeding.
D. Golden Rice.

A. the Enviropig.

54. Some food crops are difficult to grow for a variety of reasons. For example, strawberries are easily susceptible to frost damage. How could one use genetic engineering techniques to help overcome this type of problem, and which type of animal or plant would one look to for help?
A. To increase the frost hardiness of strawberries, one could generate a strain of transgenic strawberries using a gene that confers frost resistance. To identify such a gene, one could look to an animal or plant that lives in a very cold environment. Such organisms are likely to have some form of natural protection against frost.
B. To increase the frost hardiness of strawberries, one could generate a strain of cloned strawberries using a gene from another plant that confers frost resistance.
C. To increase the frost hardiness of strawberries, one could generate a strain of strawberries using a breeding design that confers frost resistance. By beginning with northern strawberry strains, breeding and selecting those that survive colder temperatures would eventually produce frost hardiness.

A. To increase the frost hardiness of strawberries, one could generate a strain of transgenic strawberries using a gene that confers frost resistance. To identify such a gene, one could look to an animal or plant that lives in a very cold environment. Such organisms are likely to have some form of natural protection against frost.

56. Investigators have found a new bacteria that lives under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. They hypothesize that different genes are expressed under the two conditions. What experiments need to be performed in order to confirm this hypothesis and identify the responsible genes?
A. Completely sequence the genome of the bacteria in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions
B. Collect expressed RNA from both anaerobic and aerobic conditions and generate two cDNA libraries
C. Compare the bacterial growth characteristics to other bacteria that have similar growth characteristics
D. Design primers to a specific region of the genome and sequence in both anaerobic and aerobic conditions

B. Collect expressed RNA from both anaerobic and aerobic conditions and generate two cDNA libraries