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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the primary need for cells?
non-recyclable energy
what is an autotrph?
make their own food by:
1)photosynthesis light-food
2)chemosythesis inorganic chem into sugar (bacteria)
Why do cells need energy constantly?
-to maintain homeostasis
-to manufacture needed substances & tear down others
-to store more usable energy
absorb light energy and convert to stred chemical energy
explain process of photosynthesis
6 co2 + 12 h20 + sunlight =
c6h1206 + 602 + 6H20
Dr Melvin Calvin
Nobel Prize 1961 worked out details of photosythesis into a series of steps
Joseph Priestly
1. candle burn -air kills mouse
2.add plant and light-mouse lives
green pigment
primary catlyst of photosynthesis
large molecule with head & tail portion (Mg++ and carbon)
does not contain Fe(iron) butneed Fe and light
where are the light capturing pigments
the grana of chloroplasts
how many types of chloroghyll are there
only chlorphyll a carries on photosynthesis others pass on light energy of different wave lengths
membrane bound organelles NOT
in animals
what are the two types of plastids
Leucoplasts-for storage and colorless

chromoplast-for synthesis colored red,ornage, and yellow
most commmon chromoplast
adenosine triphoshate
smallest unit of stored energy in cells
temporary, unstable constantly remake it
adenosine diphosphate
what is ATP energy used for
active transport
cellular movement
phosphate bonds
very high energy bonds, unstable
requirements for photosynthesis
1. light of right wavelength
2. CO2(into cell) (.03% of atmosphere)
3.temperature (varies with plants)
4. H20
where does photosynthesis take place
in membranes of grana of chloroplasts
1st stage of photosynthesis
light energy absorbed and brake apart H20 (photolysis)
second stage of photosynthesis
after water broken down oxygen is release
3rd stage of photosynthesis
as hydorgen and electorns pass on, energy is release so ADP + P--ATP
what is needed for the second pahse (dark phase) of photosynthesis
ATP + electorns +hydrogen

dark phase can only continue if light phase is on for long term
synthetic phase
CO2 + products of light--glucose
can take place in light or dark but need products of light reaction to go.
Aerobic Cellular Respiration
requires oxygen
breakdown of food into usable cellular enery in form of ATP
breakdown of glucose
in cytoplasm (where enzyms)
activation energy to start
where do the citric acid cycle and the hydrogyn electron transport system take place
cellular respiration
takes stored chemical energy (glucose) and converts it to ready to use chemical energy ATP 50% of glucose energy
C6H1206 +O2--H2O +CO2 +ATP
breakdown of foood (glucose) without O2
ex: bacteria, yeast, alcohol
all life processes
build up molecules needs energy
break down molesules releases energy
protein synthesis
crucial to life
2 types of proteins
1. enzymes
2. stuctural protein
what are proteins
polypeptide chain of amino acids (aa)
what do the sequence of bases do in DNA
determines sequence of 20 amino acids in proteins
what are the 4 bases?
thymine arranged in
guanine 3 letter
cytosine codes which
what types of RNA is needed to get code form DNA
1.messenger RNA
2.transfer RNA
3.ribosomal RNA (rRNa)
messenger RNA (mRNA)
performs "transcription"
contains code for amino acids gotten from DNA

mRNA carries code form nucleus to ribosomes in cytoplasm there mRNA read each 3 letter codon tells of aa and in right order
transfer RNA (tRNA)
aa carried by tRNA--carries to mRNA--order of codons
3 bases on tRNA: anticodon