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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
nucleus
center of the atom which contains protons & neutrons
compound
formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements
proton
positive charge found in nucleus
electron
negative charge found in energy levels
neutron
particle found in the nucleus with a neutral charge
atoms
basic unit of matter
element
pure substance composed of only one type of atom
covalent bond
formed when electrons are shared between atoms
isotopes
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
ionic bond
the bond between positive and negative ions formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
electron cloud
space around the nucleus occupied by electrons
ion
positively or negatively charged atom formed by gaining or losing of electrons
van der Waals forces
slight attraction of oppositely charged particles
molecule
smallest unit of a covalent compound
cohesion
attractions between molecules of the same substances
polar molecule
molecule with an unequal distribution of electrons resulting in a positive and negative poles
pH scale
scale from 0-14 that measures the amount of hydrogen ions in a solution-the more hydrogen ions the lower the pH
acid
solution that contains a higher concentration of hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions (0-6.9 on pH scale)
base
solution that contains a higher concentration of hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions (7.1-14 on pH scale)
solvent
substance in which the solute is dissolved
solute
substance that is dissolved by a solvent
solution
type of mixture in which two or more substances are evenly distributed (homogeneous mixture)
buffers
weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp changes in pH
products
elements or compounds that are produced by a chemical reaction
chemical reaction
process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
reactants
elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
enzymes
proteins that act as biological catalysts
catalyst
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy.
alpha (a) helix
A spiral shape; one form of the secondary structure of proteins
amino acid
An organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. They serve as the monomers of polypeptides.
atherosclerosis
A cardiovascular disease in which fatty deposits called plaques develop in the inner walls of the arteries
beta (ß) pleated sheet
One form of the secondary structure of proteins in which the polypeptide chain folds back and forth. Two regions of the chain lie parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds.
carbohydrate
A sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides) having one carbon for every two hydrogens and one oxygen.
catalyst
A chemical agent that increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
cellulose
A structural polysaccharide of plant cell walls
cholesterol
A steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids
dehydration (condensation) reaction
A reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a small molecule
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
A double-stranded nucleic acid containing deoxyribose and the bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine.
deoxyribose
The sugar component of DNA nucleotides
disaccharide
A double sugar
disulfide bridge
A strong covalent bond formed when the sulfur of one cysteine monomer bonds to the sulfur of another cysteine monomer.
double helix
The double-stranded form of DNA
enzyme
A macromolecule serving as a catalyst
fat
A lipid consisting of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule; called a triglyceride.
fatty acid
A long hydrocarbon chain carboxylic acid. They vary in length and in the number and location of double bonds; three linked to a glycerol molecule form a fat molecule (triglyceride).
gene
A single unit of hereditary information (one section of DNA) that codes for one polypeptide.
hydrolysis
A chemical process that lyses (breaks) the bond between two monomers by adding water to them.
lipids
A group of hydrophobic (non-polar) molecules including triglycerides (fats), phospholipids, steroids, and waxes.
monomer
The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer.
monosaccharide
The simplest carbohydrate
nucleic acid
A polymer (polynucleotide) consisting of many nucleotide monomers (e.g. DNA and RNA)
nucleotide
The building block of a nucleic acid
peptide bond
The covalent bond between the carboxyl group on one amino acid and the amino group on another
phospholipid
A lipid made up of glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group. The hydrocarbon are hydrophobic and the phosphate heads are hydrophilic.
polymer
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.
polynucleotide
A polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers in a chain; nucleotides can be those of DNA or RNA.
polypeptide
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
polysaccharide
A polymer of many monosaccharides
primary structure
The level of protein structure referring to the specific sequence of amino acids.
protein
A functional biological molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into a specific three-dimensional structure.
quaternary structure
The three dimensional arrangement of multiple polypeptide sub-units into one protein
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases uracil (U), adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G)
ribose
The sugar component of RNA nucleotides.
saturated fatty acid
A fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds
secondary structure
The localized coils and folds in the polypeptide chain (alpha helixes and beta sheets)
starch
A storage polysaccharide in plants
steroid
a type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various chemical groups attached (modified cholesterol).
tertiary structure
Three dimensional arrangement of a polypeptide determined by interactions among various side chains (R groups)
trans fat
An unsaturated fat containing one or more trans double bonds.
unsaturated fatty acid
A fatty acid possessing one or more double bonds between the carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. Such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton.