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25 Cards in this Set

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carrier
heterozygous individual who has no apparent abnormality but can pass on an allele for a recessively inherited genetic disorder
chromosome map
sequence that shows the relative distance between gene loci on a chromosome
codominance
inheritance pattern in which both alleles of a gene are equally expressed
dihybrid
individual that is heterozygous for two traits; shows the phenotype governed by the dominant alleles but carries the recessive alleles
dominant allele
allele that exerts its phenotypic effect in the heterozygote; it masks the expression of the recessive allele
gene linkage
existence of several alleles on the same chromosome
gene locus
specific location of a particular gene on homologous chromosomes
genotype
genes of an organism for a particular trait or traits; often designated by letters - for example, BB or Aa
heterozygous
possessing unlike alleles for a particular trait
homozygous
possessing two identical alleles for a particular trait
incomplete dominance
inheritance pattern in which the offspring has an intermediate phenotype, as when a red-flowered plant and a white-flowered plant produce pink-flowered offspring
law of independent assortment
alleles of unlinked genes assort independently of each other during meiosis so that the gametes contain all possible combinations of alleles
law of segregation
separation of alleles from each other during meiosis so that the gametes contain one from each pair. Each resulting gamete has an equal chance of receiving either allele
linkage group
alleles of different genes that are locatedon the same chromosome and tend to be inherited together
multifactorial trait
trait controlled by polygenes subject to environmental influence; each dominant allele contributes to the phenotype in an additive and like manner
phenotype
visible expression of a genotype; ex. brown eyes or attached earlobes
pleiotropy
inheritance pattern in which one gene affects many phenotypic characteristics of the individual
polygenic inheritance
pattern of inheritance in which a trait is controlled by several allele pairs; each dominant allele contributes to the phenotype in an additive and like manner
Punnett square
grid used to calculate the expected results of simple genetic crosses
recessive allele
allele that exerts its phenotypic effect only in the homozygote; its expression is masked by a dominant allele
recombinant gamete
new combination of alleles incorporated into a gamete during crossing-over
rule of multiplication
the chance of two (or more) independent events occurring together is the product of their chance occurring separately
testcross
cross between an individual with the dominant phenotype and an individual with the recessive phenotype. The resulting phenotypic ratio indicates whether the dominant phenotype is homozygous or heterozygous
wild-type
allele or phenotype that is the most common for a certain gene in an population
X-linked
allele that is located on an X chromosome but may control a trait that has nothing to do with the sex characteristics of an animal