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49 Cards in this Set

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What are the four main classes of large biological molecules?
carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins
Polymers are formed by _____ reaction
dehydration (condensation)
polymers are broken down into monomers by ______ reactions
hydrolysis
_______ includes both sugars and polymers of sugars
carbohydrates
In aqueous solutions, glucose and most other sugars form

a. aldoses
b. ketoses
c. trioses
d. rings
d. rings
Dissacharides are joined by a _____ linkage.
glycosidic
Glucose + Glucose = ____.
maltose (1,4)
glucose + fructose = _____.
sucrose (1,2)
glucose + galactose = ____.
lactose
plants store _____: a polymer of glucose molecules
starch
Starch is stored in ______.
plastids (including chloroplasts)
Animals store glucose as___; mainly in the _____ and ______.
glycogen
liver
muscle cells
Starch is a 1-4 linkage of (alpha/beta) glucose monomers
alpha
(helical appearance)
Cellulose is a 1,4 linkage of (alpha/beta) glucose monomers
beta
(straight appearance)
True or False

Cellulose is branched
False- it is never branched
80 cellulose molecules combine to form a ________.
microfibril
Chitin is an important structural polysaccharide found in _____.

a. plants
b. humans
c. arthropods
d. fungi
e. more than one of the above
e- more than one of the above; its also found in many fungi which use chitin rather than cellulose as building material for their cell walls
True or False

Lipids do not form true polymers
True
Which of the following is NOT a lipid?

a. Certain pigments
b. Cholesterol
c. Waxes
d. Steroids
e. All of the above are lipids
e. all of the above are lipids
This is an example of a _____.

List the components
Unsaturated fat

Glycerol with 3 carbon backbone attached to 3 fatty acids via an ester linkage
Whats the difference between a saturated fatty acid and an unsaturated fatty acid?
Saturated fats have maximum hydrogen available (no double bond) whereas unsaturated fatty acid is deficient in hydrogens because of a double bond.
Are you fat?
Haha! Made you look!
A kink in a fatty acid is the result of a ____ double bond.

a.cis
b. trans
cis
Which contributes more to atherosclerosis, cis or trans fats?
trans
A gram of fat stores ___ amount of energy as a polysaccharide.

a. Twice
b. Four times
c. As much
d. three times
a. twice
Whats the major difference between a phospholipid and a fatty acid?
Phospholipid has one less fatty acid attached to it; instead a phosphate with fatty acid groups attached it is present in lieu of the 3rd fatty acid typically found in a fatty acid.
Cholesterol is synthesized in the ______.
Liver
Draw the parts of an amino acid
Which amino acids are basic?
HAL

Histidine
Lysine
Arginine
Which amino acids are acidic?
Gluatmic acid
Aspartic acid
Amino acid polymers are called ______ and they are attached via _____.
polypeptide
peptide bonds
What is the primary structure of an amino acid?
It is the unique sequence of amino acids
What is the secondary structure of an amino acid?
Coiled and folded structure (alpha helix, beta sheets) resulting from hydrogen bonding between repeating constituents on polypeptide backbone
Tertiary structures are the result of interactions between _______.
Side chains (R groups) of various amino acids
Hydrophobic interactions are seen in what protein structural level?

a. Primary
b. Secondary
c. Tertiary
d. Quartenary
c. Tertiary
What kind of bonding is found in the tertiary structure proteins?
________ are proteins that assist in the proper folding of other proteins
Chaperonins or chaperone proteins
List the pyrimidines of nucleic acids.
CUT THE PIE (pyrimidines)

C- cytosine
U- uracil
T- thymine
List the purines of nucleic acids.
PURE (purine) As Gold

A- Adenine
G- Guanine
Polymers of nucleotides are called ____.
polynucleotides
What are the parts of a nucleotide?
Three carbon sugar (pentose)
Nitrogenous Base
Phosphate group
On a nucleotide, the portion of a unit without a phosphate group is called a ______.
Nucleoside
Uracil replaces ____ and is found in (DNA/RNA)?
thymine
RNA
The sugar attached to DNA is called ______.
Ribose
The sugar attached to RNA is called ____.
Deoxyribose
Adjacent nucleotides are joined by a _____ linkage.
phosphodiester
The opposing strands of DNA run (parallel/antiparallel) to each other
antiparallel
Base pairs are joined by _____.
Hydrogen Bonding

G-C 3
A-T 2
Base Pairing occurs as

G: ___
__: ___
G - C
A - T

GCAT!