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23 Cards in this Set

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multiple allele
one of a number of different alleles (more than two alternatives) that can be found on a particular gene
多等位基因
polygenic inheritance
characteristics which are inherited throught the interaction of several different genes
多基因遗传
epistasis
when one gene in a polygenic trait alters or affects the expression of another gene
上位效应
agouti
coat coloring eg in cats
条纹
Barr body
mass of inactivated X chromosome in cells of female mammals
巴尔体
lac operon
cluster of genes involved with the production of lactose in bacterial cells
乳糖操纵元
discontinuous variation
variation shown by features which are either present or not.
不连续差异
continuous variation
a feature that shows many small variations
连续差异
frequency distribution
representation of the frequency at which a particular characteristic is found in a population
频率分布
normal distribution curve
bell-shaped curve of a feature showing continuous variation in a population
正态分布曲线
standard deviation
a statistical measure of amount of difference from the mean within a sample
标准差
monoamine oxidase A (MAOA)
enzyme found in nervous system, liver and gut that breaks down monoamine neurotransmitters.
单胺氧化酶(MAOA基因)
neurotransmitter
chemical involved in transmitting nerve impulses across the synapses (突触)of the nervous system
神经递质
serotonin
monoamine neurotransmitter, released when the blood vessels are damaged which causes the smooth muscles to contract, narrowing the blood vessel and reducing bleeding
血清素
noradrenaline
a monoamine neurotransmitter
去甲肾上腺素
dopamine
monoamine neurotransmitter
多巴胺
metastasis
splitting of a malignant tumour to form secondary growths
转移
malignant
a tumour which invades surrounding tissues and splits to form secondary tumours
恶性肿瘤
papillomavirus
乳头状瘤病毒
proto-oncogene
gene which codes for proteins which stimulate the cell cycle
原癌基因
oncogene
gene that causes the production of uncontrolled amounts of proteins which stimulate the cell cycle and in turn cause uncontrolled cell replication
癌基因
tumour suppressor gene
gene which slows down the cell cycle and reduces the rate of cell division
抑癌基因
melanoma
cancer of the cells that produce the pigment melanin
恶性黑色素瘤