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87 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
correlation
a relationship between two
Variables
subjects are similar in many characteristics
Researchers who use correlational studies do their best to ensure?
Correlation
does not equal causation
sample
a small subgroup used for an experimental test
sampling error
the effect of chance on experimental results
Sample Size
the number of individuals in the exp. and control groups
statistics
specialized branch of mathematics used in the evaluation of experimental data
Descriptive Statistics
helps researchers summarize data from the sample of a population
Inferential Statistics
allow scientists to extend the results they summarize from their sample to the entire population
Statistical tests
actually evaluate the ‘null hypothesis’
null hypothesis
that there is zero difference between the experimental and control populations
All statistical tests
operate with the assumption that the experiment was designed and carried out correctly
statistically significant
defined as one that has a 5% probability or less of being due to chance alone
double-blind experiment
both the research subjects and the experimenters are unaware of either the hypothesis or whether control or experimental group
ensure the data is objective
Why blind the experimenter?
hypothesis
a proposed explanation for one or more observations
testable
must be possible to evaluate the hypothesis through observations of the measurable universe
falsifiable
must be able to be proved false
Hypothesis
are judgments that are not scientific, since different people have different ideas about what is right and wrong
hypothesis testing
based on deductive reasoning or deduction
hypothesis testing
Involves making a specific prediction about the outcome of an action or test based on observable facts
hypothesis testing
Takes the form of ‘if/then’ statements
hypothesis
may be rejected later on based on the results of a different test
alternative hypothesis
factors other than the tested hypothesis that may explain observations
experiments
contrived situations designed to test specific hypo
data
information collected by scientists during hypo testing
primary sources
written by researchers themselves
secondary sources
books, news reports, and ads
anecdotal evidence
advice is based on one’s personal experience
testimonial
a common form of anecdote
Newsworthiness
Is the discovery controversial?
Conflicting and Confusing Results
Examine the Scientific Claim
Reliability
5 Things for Understanding Science from Secondary Sources?
solvent
what a solute is dissolved in
solute
substance that dissolves in a liquid
CARBON
All life on Earth is based on the chemistry of the element
atomic number
number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
atomic mass
sum of the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus
protons
positively charged
neutrons
electrically neutral
electrons
negatively charged
hydrogen bonding
a weak chemical bond that forms between dipolar molecules
covalent bond
type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share electrons
polar
unequal sharing of electrons makes water?
nonpolar
atoms of a molecule carry no charge
pH
measure of the relative amounts of these ions in a solution
acidic
substance that donates H+ ions to a solution
basic
substance that accepts H+ ions
DNA
Which molecule has sugar-phosphate backbone?
carbohydrate
one or more sugar molecule
polar molecule
molecule that carries opposite charges on opposite sides
homeostasis
constant internal environment despite an ever-changing external environment
Chloroplast
Where does photosynthesis occur in the cell?
Mitochondria
Where does cellular respiration occur in the cell?
enzyme
protein that catalyzes and regulates the rate of metabolic reactions
lysosomes
help break down food that is ingested before it is sent to the mitochondria
chloroplasts
help the cells convert food energy into a form usable by cells, called ATP
ribosomes
workbenches where proteins are assembled
endoplasmic reticulum
many proteins are assembled on the membranes of the?
Golgi apparatus
proteins are modified and sorted in a membranous structure called the?
centrioles
involved in moving genetic material around when a cell divides
vacuole
Where plant cells store sugars and pigments?
Centrioles
Which part of cell made up of microtubules?
microtubules
Help move chromosomes around when a cell divides?
Phospholipids
What molecules form a bi-layer?
dehydration
Deficiency of water in body
hydrogenation
adding hydrogen gas under pressure to make liquid oils more solid
all chemical reactions in cells would occur relentlessly, whether the products of the reaction were needed or not
Why do we have activation barriers?
3,500 calories
One pound of fat
obesity
BMI of 30 or greater
exocytosis
occurs when a membrane bound vesicle, carrying some substance, fuses with the plasma membrane and releases its contents into the exterior of the cell
endocytosis
occurs when a substance is brought into a cell by a vesicle pinching inward, bringing the substance with it
diffusion
movement of molecules from where they are in high concentration to where they are in low concentration. This does not require outside energy-it is spontaneous
osmosis
The movement of water across a membrane; high to low; water moves through proteins in the membrane called aquaporins, but even without those, water can still cross the membrane
passive transport
when substances diffuse across the plasma membrane
active transport
uses proteins, powered by ATP, to move substances up a concentration gradient
saturated fats
exist when the carbons of a fatty acid are bound to as many hydrogens as possible
unsaturated fats
exist when there are C=C and the fat is not saturated in hydrogens
No
Decrease in body water level causes sweating?
eukaryotic cells
1. have a nucleus

2. have organelles (internal structures with specialized functions)

3. include single-celled organisms such as amoebas and yeast, as well as multicellular plants, fungi, and animals
prokaryotic cells
1. no nucleus

2. no separate membrane-bound compartment that contains DNA

3. no membrane bound internal structures

4. smaller than eukaryotic cells, and predate eukaryotic cells
whole foods
Have not been stripped of their nutrition by processing and contain vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants
processed foods
provide no real nutrition
nucleotides that comprise DNA and RNA
Nucleic Acids are polymers of what?
vitamins
organic, or C containing, substances that are required only in small amounts
minerals
substances that do not contain C, but are essential for many cell functions. Inorganic
Protons and neutrons
What is found in nucleus of atom?
Water-soluble
-Small organic molecules
-Will dissolve in water
-Cannot be synthesized by body
-Supplements packaged as pressed tablets
-Excesses usually not a problem
Fat-soluble
-Small organic molecules
-Will not dissolve in water
-Cannot by synthesized by body
-Supplements packaged as oily gel caps
-Excesses can cause problems