Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Things that fall under innate: first line of defense:

1. physical barriers to invasion (skin, mucus membranes)

2. washing action (tears, sweat, urine)

3. mucus and cilia (traps and sweeps out)

4. chemicals ((lysozyme, salt, antimicro peptides, acid/bases)

5. normal microbiota

(Please Wash My Cute Nikes)

Things that fall under innate: second line of defense:

1. phagocytosis

2. inflammation

3. fever

4. chemical defenses (interferons, complement, iron-binding proteins)

5. NK cells

When inflammation becomes chronic and causes more harm than good, what identifier is typically associated with these types of diseases?

diseases ending in "-itis"

What meds are typically used for "-itis" diseases?


leukotriene inhibitors

What 2 ways does fever help defend against pathogens?

- changes environment to denature enzymes in pathogen to kill it

- higher temp helps speed up the phagocytic digestive/killing of pathogens

What 2 things associated with fever do you not want too much of? Thresholds for each?

- intensity (ie high fever): no specific # but many facilities will use one as their own guideline. Specific to each person, age, overall health, etc

- duration: no longer than 3 days

What 3 things fall under innate: 2nd line of defense: chemical defenses:

1. interferon

2. complement

3. iron-binding proteins

When is interferon made? How does it work to defend against pathogens?

made when a cell is infected by VIRUS

interferes with pathogens being able to invade nearby cells if the interferon gets there first

What is complement?

a group of 10+- proteins made by the liver, released into blood in an inactive state

What activates complement?

combination of antibodies and antigens


a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen


non-self materials/markers

What 3 things happen when a complement is activated:

1. chemotaxis//increased inflammation

2. opsonization

3. cytolysis

(Hint: inflamed/coc(k)

What is opsonization?

the complement sticks to the antigen on the pathogen on one side and sticks to phagocytes on the other (even in microorgs with capsules)

aka adherence

(Hint: ops=works by ON= sticks on)

What is cytolysis

complement itself drills holes into pathogen, causing the cell to burst (due to change in osmolarity)

How do iron-binding proteins work?

naturally present iron-binding substances in blood bind iron for us, making it unavailable to pathogens who also need it for growth. Causing pathogens to die due to lack of iron

What are 3 examples of iron-binding proteins?

1. ferritin

2. transferrin (notice 1. is ferriTIN and 2. is -ferrin)

3. hemoglobin

In short, what are NK cells and what does NK stand for?

Natural Killer cellsWBCs that can tell if a cell is infected and kill it

What 2 types of cells do NK cells kill?

virus-infected cells

cancer cells

How/what 2 chemicals do NK cells release to kill infected cells?

1. perforins and

2. granzymes

(NK-north korea, kim jung un=perfect grandma)

How do perforins work?

punch holes on outside of infected cells

How do granzymes work?

get inside infected cell and digests it from inside out

How can NK cells tell that a cell is infected?

infected cells will be missing markers on the outside of cell

so NK cells go around looking for cells without a marker and kill them (with perforin and granzymes)

What does natural mean in regards to immunity?

immunity that 'just happens'

What does artificial mean in regards to immunity?

immunity that requires medical intervention

What does active mean in regards to immunity?

-immunity that body builds for itself

-takes time to develop

-long lasting

What does passive mean in regards to immunity?

-immunity obtained from an outside source

-provides immediate protection


What is naturally acquired active immunity?

immunity after an infection

(what most ppl think of when they hear immunity)

What is artificially acquired active immunity?

vaccines - contains an artificially altered pathogen (ie inactivated organism) or an altered substance from it

immunity after a vaccine

What is naturally acquired passive immunity?

mom's antibodies are passed to baby across placenta, as well as in colostrum and breast milk

What is Artificially acquired passive immunity?

receive antibody from other human/animal source

When do most antibodies pass from mom to baby?

beginning in 8th month of pregnancy thru birth and via colostrum and breast milk

what is colostrum?

"first milk" thick, yellow and full of antibodies

what nursing mom produces in first few days following birth

When should a mother NOT breast feed?

when mom is taking certain meds

when mom has certain infections

4 types/circumstances for use of artificial passive immunity

1. gammaglobulin shot

2. antiserum shot

3. antitoxin shot

4. antivenom shot


aka antibodies

globular proteins that provide immunity

What shape are immunoglobulins?

Y shaped with heavy and light chains, with each side being a mirror-image

Explain the significance of the shape of an antibody?

each antibodies unique shape allows it to bind with a specific pathogen