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28 Cards in this Set

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Mitosis

division of the nucleus

early prophase

chromosomes condense, nuclear envelope breaks up

prophase

the spindle starts to form: a network of proteins that attaches to centromeres and directs movement of chromosomes

metaphase

chromosomes line up in center of cell

anaphase

spindle proteins shorten, pulling sister chromatids apart

chromatid =

chromosome

telophase

spindle dissolves, nuclear envelopes reform, chromosomes unwind

cytokinesis

division of the rest of the cytoplasm

the cell itself divides in half creating two identical ________ _____.

daughter cells

animal cells produce a band of proteins that ...

pinch the cell in half.

cell cycle

life cycle of the cell

3 checkpoints for cell division

G1, G2, and metaphase

Early interphase (G1)

growth factors stimulate cells to divide by bonding to receptors on cell

After DNA replication (G2)

was DNA replicated correctly?

cell division: Mitosis

are chromosomes attached to spindle fibers?

risk factors definition

certain behaviors increase chances of developing cancer

examples of risk factors

tobacco use, high fat/low-fiber diet, excess alcohol consumption, lack of exercise, obesity, any cell that divides frequently

what causes 1/3 of all cancer deaths?

tobacco use

DNA polymerase is used during what stage of cellular reproduction?

DNA replication

In which phase of mitosis do the replicated chromosomes align in the center of the cell?

metaphase

Telomeres shorten ....

100 nucleotides each division
genetic mutation

changes to the sequence of nucleotides in a stretch of DNA

Proto-oncogenes

genes that code for the cell cycle control proteins (such as receptors and growth factors)
When proto-oncogenes mutate, they become ______


oncogenes




Tumor suppressor genes

genes for proteins that stop cell division if conditions are not favorable

most cancers require....

more than one mutation

During anaphase in mitosis, what structures are being separated and moved into opposite sides of the cell?

Sister chromatids

At which checkpoint of the cell cycle is the cell looking for a growth factor?

End of G1