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138 Cards in this Set

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Criteria for acceptable sputum specimens

<10 squamous epithelial cells and >25 PMNs

Criteria to reject sputum specimen

>25 squamous epithelial cells and <10 PMNs

Method used to evaluate adequacy of sputum specimen

Bartlett's Classification

Urine specimen of choice for microbiology

Midstream clean catch

Urine specimen of choice for microbiology for those that cannot void

catheterized specimen

Urine specimen of choice for microbiology for those who cannot produce urine and for anaerobic culture

Suprapubic aspiration

Suitable urine preservative

Boric acid

Types of calibrated loops

1uL loop = 0.001 mL


10uL loop = 0.01mL

Colony count Formula used when using 1uL calibrated loop

#of colonies x 1000

Colony count formula used when using 10uL calibrated loop

#of colonies x 100

Brownian movement definition

motility of non-motile organisms due to the movement of the molecules surrounding them

staining technique that uses simple aqueous solutions of dyes

simple staining

Staining technique where only the background is stained

Indirect or Relief or Negative staining

staining technique that Demonstrates special features of the cells

Special staining

Examples of Capsular stain

Hiss, Anthony's,Tyler, Muir

Examples of Spore stains

Dorner's, Schaeffer and Fulton, Wirtz and Conklin

Example of Flagellar stain

Gray's Fisher and Conn, Leifson

Example of metachromatic granule staining

Albert's, Neisser, Ljubinsky, Ponder, Methylene Blue, Lindergran, Burke's technique

Example of nucleic acid staining

Feulgen

Example of polar body staining

Wayson

Example of spirochete stains

Levaditi, Warthin-Starry, Fontana-Tribondeau

Staining technique that utilizes more than one dye

Differential staining

Gram stain primary stain

crystal violet

Gram stain mordant

iodine

Gram stain decolorizer

Acetone alcohol

Gram stain secondary stain

Safranin

Hucker's modification of gram stain makes use of?

Ammonium oxalate added to crystal violet

Hucker's modification of gram stain function

for fungal staining

All cocci are gram positive except

Neisseria, Branhamella, and Veilonella

All bacilli are gram negative except

Mycobacterium, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Bacillus, Erysepelothrix, Lactobacillus, Listeria (MCCBELL)

Examples of higher organisms that stain gram positive

Actinomyces, Streptomyces, yeast, and molds

Gram stain characteristics of Spiral organisms

Gram negative

Organisms not gram stained

Rickettsia, Chlamydia, Ureaplasma, Mycoplasma, Spirochetes

Reasons why Gram positive becomes Gram negative

Over decolorization and use of acidic Gram's Iodine

Reasons why Gram negative becomes Gram positive

Under decolorization and use of thick bacterial smear

Cell wall substance responsible for Mycobacterium's acid fastness

Hydroxymethoxy acid or mycolic acid

Size of AFB smear

2x3cm

Ways to facilitate acid fast staining

heating, increasing concentration of phenol or basic fuchsin, prolonging staining time, addition of wetting agents prior to staining

Mordant for Ziehl Neelsen method

Steam or heat

Mordant for Kinyoun's

Tergitol

Primary stain for acid fast

Carbol fuchsin

Decolorizer for acid fast

Acid alcohol

Counterstain for acid fast

Methylene blue

Component of acid alcohol in kinyoun's method

Hydrochloric acid and ethanol

Modified Kinyouns acid alcohol components

Sulfuric acid and ethanol

AFB in tissues are best stained using?

Kinyoun's method

Setting of slide warmer for AFB fixing

65C for 2 hours

Pappenheims Acid Fast function

Differentiates M. smegmatis (blue) from M. Tb (red)

Baumgartens AFS function

Differentiate M. leprae (red) from M. tb (blue)

Fite Faraco's difference with other methods

Uses hematoxylin as counterstain

How to dispense plated media

Weigh, dissolve, sterilize, dispense

How to dispense tubed media

Weigh, dissolve, dispense, sterilize

Culture media according to physical state

Liquid, semi-solid, solid, biphasic media

Non liquefiable solid media

Chopped meat media and rice grain agar

Example of biphasic media

Castañeda media (Brucella), and human bilayer tween (Gardnerella)

Culture media accdg to composition

Synthetic/Defined, Non-synthetic/complex, tissue culture/living cells

Examples of non-synthetic agar

EMB, MAC

Types of viral media

Continuous, semi-continuous, and primary

HeLa cell origin

Cervical cancer cells

Chick embryo function

For rickettsia and viruses

A549 origin

Lung cancer

McCoy Cells origin

African green monkey kidney cells

BAP composition

5% defibrinated blood from horse, sheep, or rabbit

Reason why human blood cannot be used for BAP

Has citrate which inhibits demonstration of hemolytic pattern, and has dextrose which alters... stuff

Type of media used for routine cultivation of bacteria

General purpose/ general isolation media

Media used to enhance growth

Enrichment media

Media used for fastidious organisms

Enriched media

Media that promotes growth of the desired organism while inhibiting the growth of others

Selective media

Inhibitors of gram positive organisms

Sodium desoxycholate (bile salts), and crystal violet or gentian violet

Inhibitors for gram negativr organism

Potassium tellurite and Sodium Azide

Inhibitory agent in lowenstein-jensen media

Malachite green

Tellurite agar is for?

C. diptheriae

Differentiate organisms growing together

Differential mrfia

Transport media used as a VTM

Stuart's

Carry-Blair function

Transport media for stool and rectal swabs

Media for Susceptibility testing

Mueller-Hinton

Both selective and enrichment media for S. agalactiae from female genital specimens

Todd-Hewitt

CNA function

Selective for gram positive organisms

Methods in susceptibility testing

Dilutiob method and disk diffusion method

Lowest concentration of antibiotic that inhibits bacterial growth

MIC

Lowest concentration of antibiotic that kills an organism

MBC

Depth of MH agar

4mm

In a 100mm plate how many disks should be there?

No more than 5

In a 150mm plate how many disks should be there?

No more than 12 disks

pH of MH agar

7.2 - 7.4

Distance of disk in MH from center

24mm

Distance between 2 disks in MH

15mm

McFarland Standard composition

99.5mL 1% Sulfuric acid and 1.175% Barium chloride

CFU of McFarland standard

1.5x10^8

Incubating MH at >35C will not allow detection of?

MRSA

Possible sources of error

Innoculum size, and depth of agar

Too much moisture in MH can lead to?

False resistant

Very dry MH agar can lead to?

False sensitive

Indicator of improper disk storage

Methicillin and penicillin

Long term Storage temp for antibiotics

20C below in a non frost freezer

Working supply storage temp for antibiotic disks

2-8C for 7 days

Antibiotics that have false sensitive result in acidic pH

Tetracycline, Novobiocin, Methicillin

Antibiotics that have false sensitive result in alkaline pH

Aminoglycosides and erythromycin

What do you measure using sulfonamides when there are 2 concentric zones?

The outer zone

Type of microbial agent: penicillin

Beta lactam, cell wall inhibitor

Type of microbial agent: cephalosporin

Beta lactam, Cell wall inhibitor

Type of microbial agent: carbapenems

Beta lactam, cell wall inhibitor

Type of microbial agent: monobactam

Beta lactam, cell wall inhibitor

Type of microbial agent: vancomycin

Glycopeptides, cell wall inhibitor

Antibiotic used to treat MRSA

Vancomycin

Type of microbial agent: cycloserine

Cell wall inhibitors

Type of microbial agent: bacitracin

Cell wall inhibitors

Type of microbial agent: colistin

Cell membrane inhibitors

Type of microbial agent: polymyxins

Cell membrane inhibitor

Type of microbial agent: amphoterucin B

Cell membrane inhibitor

Type of microbial agent: nystatin

Cell membrane inhibitor

Type of microbial agent: gentamicin

Aminoglycoside, Protein inhibitors

Type of microbial agent: kanamycin

Aminoglycosides, protein inhibitor

Type of microbial agent: tetracycline

Protein inhibitor

Type of microbial agent: chloramphenicol

Protein inhibitor

Type of microbial agent: erythromycin

Macrolide, protein inhibitor

Type of microbial agent: clindamycin

Macrolide, protein inhibitor

Type of microbial agent: azithromycin

Macrolide, protein inhibitor

Type of microbial agent: sulfonamides

Nucleic acid inhibitor

Type of microbial agent: trimetrophrim

Nucleic acid inhibitor

Type of microbial agent: ciprofloxacin

Quinolone, nucleic acid inhibitor

Type of microbial agent: norfloxacin

Quinolones, nucleic acid inhibitor

Type of microbial agent: rifampicin

Nucleic acid inhibitor

Type of microbial agent: nitrofurantoin

Protein and nucleic acid inhibitor

Drug used for UTI

Nitrofurantoin

Drug that should not be used for P. aeruginosa

Sulfonamides

Drug that can lead to bone marrow supression in the long run

Chloramphenicol

Drug used for intracellular organisms

Tetracycline

Drugs against gram neg bacteria

Colistin, polymyxins

Antifungal drugs

Amphotericin B, and Nystatin

Bacteriostatic antimicrobials

Chloramphenicol, erythromycin, clindamycin, sulfronamides

Bacteridal antimicrobials

Vancomycin, aminoglycosides, B-lactams, and quinolones

D test detects?

Inducible Clindamycin resistance

Positive result for D test

Blunting on the clindamycin to form a D pattern

What does inducible clindamycin mean?

Some isolates of S. aureus are in vivo resistant to erythromycin and susceptible to clindamycin in vitro

What is E test for?

An alternative susceptibility test for fastidious organisms and anaerobes

E test principle

Uses a strip with varying concentrations of antibiotic along its length

Positive result in e test

Elliptical growth of inhibition