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41 Cards in this Set

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Microbiology
Study of microscopic organisms
Amoeba
Amoeba is an animal-like protist
Bacteria
unicellular organisms that lack membrane-bound structures; a common term used to describe prokaryotes.
Capsid
the protein shell that surrounds a virus.
Capsule
a surface layer on some bacteria that helps them stick to each other and surfaces.
Cilia
a short hair-like structures used by microorganisms for motion. Paramecium uses cilia to move or locomote
Euglena
unicellular protist that lives in freshwater characterized by a reddish eyespot and a single flagellum
Eukaryote
either unicellular or multi-cellular organism that contains membrane-bound organelles and genetic material within a nucleus.
Eyespot
an organelle of the protist euglena that is sensitive to light.
Flagellum
a whip-like structure on unicellular organisms that aids with movement.
Microbe
any organism or near life form that cannot be seen with the naked eye.
Paramecium
paramecium is a protist, contains contractile vacuole for waste water and cilia for locomotion.
Parasite
an organism that derives nourishment or habitat from the tissues or fluids of another organism. A eukaryotic pathogen can be unicellular or multi-cellular
Prokaryote
a unicellular organism that lacks a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelle.
Protist
generally, a single-celled organism with a nucleus and organelles, including amoebas, euglenas, paramecia and volvox.
Pseudopodia
an extension of the cytoplasm used for movement in some organisms. A means of locomotion for an amoeba; literally, “false foot.”
Virus
a particle consisting of DNA encased in a protein coat that must inject its DNA into a living cell in order to reproduce. A microbe that consists of nucleic acid enclosed within a protein shell that requires a living cell in order to reproduce. Scientists consider the virus to be not alive.
Active immunity
protection against a disease acquired by being infected with the pathogen that causes the disease.
Amoebic dysentery
a disease that is caused by a parasite. The protist amoeba that is found in contaminated food and water.
Antibiotic
medicines used to kill or slow the growth of bacteria that cause disease.
Antibody
a chemical substance made by the body to help destroy an invading pathogen.
Antimicrobial product
is a substance that is designed to kill microbes before they enter the body.
Carrier
a person with a disease that they can pass on to other organisms.
Contagion
an infectious disease that can be transmitted or spread from one organism to another.
Disease
is any change that disrupts the normal function of one or more body systems.
Epidemic
a disease that spreads over a wide geographic area.
Infectious disease
any disease that is caused by a pathogen.
Influenza
an acute, commonly epidemic disease, occurring in several forms, caused by numerous rapidly mutating viral strains and characterized by respiratory symptoms.
Noninfectious disease
a disease that cannot be spread from one organism to another.
Pathogen
a microbe that causes disease in an organism.
Polio
an acute viral disease marked by inflammation of nerve cells of the brain stem and spinal cord.
Small pox
is an infectious disease unique to humans, caused by either of two virus: variants named Variola major and Variola minor.
Vaccine
any preparation used as a preventive inoculation to confer immunity against a specific disease, usually employing an innocuous form of the disease agent, as killed or weakened bacteria or viruses, to stimulate antibody production.
Vector
an animal that carries and transmits a disease.
Biotechnology
industrial use of living organisms, or parts of living organisms to produce foods, drugs, or other products.
DNA
is the nucleic acid responsible for carrying the genetic information of most organisms from one generation to the next.
Mutagen
a toxic chemical that causes damage to an organism’s DNA.
Mutation
a random change to a gene that results in a new trait.
RNA
is the nucleic acid used by most organisms for protein synthesis.
genetic engineering
a branch of biotechnology in which genes are altered.
cloning
cloning is the process of producing populations of genetically-identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually. Cloning in biotechnology refers to processes used to create copies of DNA fragments (molecular cloning), cells (cell cloning), or organisms. Ethical issues are relate to cloning and it is the most controversial issue of today.