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193 Cards in this Set

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Colostrum

First milk-like substance produced by the female after parturition.

Abscess

Localized collection of pus.

Epulis

Benign tumor arising from periodontal mucous membranes.

Malocclusion

Abnormal position of teeth that results in faulty meeting of the teeth or jaws.

Occlusion

Relation of the teeth of both jaws during functional activity.

Palatoschisis

Cleft palate.

Bolus

Rounded mass of food. In the case of pharmaceuticals, it refers to the preparation ready to be swallowed.

Defecation

Passage of feces from the anus to the outside of the body; elimination.

Diaphragm

Thin, muscular partition separating the thoracic and abdominal cavities.

Flatulence

Presence of gas in the stomach and intestines; flatus.

Mastication

Chewing.

Anorexia

Lack of appetite.

Ascites

Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen.

Atresia

Closure of a normal body opening.

Biopsy

Removal of tissue for microscopic examination.

Borborygmus

Rumbling noises caused by the movement of gas or fluid through the GI tract.

Cachexia

General ill health and malnutrition.

Diarrhea

Rapid movement of feces through the GI tract; loose, watery stool.

Emaciation

Marked wasting or excessive leanness.

Enema

Introduction of fluid into the rectum to promote defecation.

Etiology

Study of the cause of disease.

Gastric dilatation volvulus

Abnormal condition in which the stomach fills with air, expands, and then twist on itself.




This is a common problem in large breed dogs, particularly the deep-chested breeds. "Bloat"

Gavage

Forced feeding or irrigation though a tube passed into the stomach.

Hematochezia

Bright, red, fresh blood from the rectum

Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis

Acute condition in dogs causing vomiting and bloody diarrhea leading to dehydration, heart failure, and eventually death.

Hepatic lipidosis

Accumulation of fat in the liver that leads to liver damage. Disease typically occurs in cats after a period of anorexia.

Idiopathic

When the cause of disease is neither known nor understood.

Inappetence

Lack of appetite.

Incontinence

Inability to control excretory functions (defecation or urination)

Intussusception

Telescoping of intestines.

Jaundice

Yellow-orange coloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to excessive bilirubin in the blood.

Lethargy

Condition of drowsiness or indifference

Malaise

A vague feeling of bodily discomfort.

Melena

Black tarry stool; blood in feces.

Nausea

Upset stomach and a tendency to vomit.

Obstruction

Complete stoppage or impairment of passage.

Palpation

Method of examining the internal body by touching and feeling.

Perenteral

Route of administration other than oral.

Regurgitate

Passive event in which swallowed food is returned to the oral cavity.

Spasm

Sudden, involuntary contraction.

Stasis

Stopping or controlling.

Stenosis

Tightening, narrowing, or stricture.

Trichobezoar

Hairball

Anemia

Decrease in RBCs and/or hemoglobin

Carcinoma

Malignant tumor arising from epithelial tissue.

Sarcoma

Malignant tumor arising from connective OR nonepithelial tissue.

Leukemia

Increase in the number of cancerous WBCs.

Diagnosis

Estimation of cause of disease

Prognosis

Estimation of disease outcome

Benign

Not malignant, non-invasive; not spreading

Malignant

Tending to become progressively worse

Evisceration

Displacement of internal organs outside the cavity that should contain them

Hernia

Abnormal protrusion of an organ or tissue through the structure that should contain

Prolapse

Abnormal protrusion of an organ or tissue through a natural opening

Achondroplasia

Hereditary condition in which the bones and cartilage of limbs fail to grow to normal size. dwarfism.

Amputation

Removal of a limb or other appendage

Crepitation

Crackling sounds produce by the grating of broken bones.

Dislocation

Displacement of a bone from its joint

Fracture

Sudden breaking of bone

Laminectomy

Removal of part of the vertebral arch to relieve pressure from a ruptured IVD

Lordosis

Downward or ventral curvature of the lumbar spine; swayback

Orthopedic

Branch of sx pertaining to skeletal system

Osteoprosis

Decreased bone density due to loss of bone tissue. Bones become porous and fragile such that they can break easily.

Lameness

Incapable of normal locomotion

Luxation

Displacement of a bone from its joint

Subluxation

Partial displacement of a bone from its joint

Abduction

Movement away from midline of body

Adduction

Movement toward the midline of body

Atrophy

No development due to a decrease from the normal cell size

Hyperplasia

Increased development due to an increase in cell numbers

Hypertrophy

Excessive development due to an increase in cell size

hypoplasia

Incomplete development due to decrease in cell numbers

Tenosynovitis

Inflammation of the tendon and tendon sheath. Seen with chronic arthritis

Tetany

Continuous muscle spasms or twitching

Mucous Membranes

Specialized form of epithelial tissue that secretes mucus

Mucus

Slimy substance produced by mucous membranes

Agonal

Repirations near death.

Antitussives

Substances used to control and prevent coughing

Asphyxia

Blockage of breathing leading to hypoxia

Asthma

Chronic, inflammatory disorder marked by dyspnea (difficulty breathing) and wheezing
Atelectasis

Incomplete dilation of a lung (alveoli)

Ausceltation

Listening with a stethoscope to sounds within the body

Emphysema

Lung disease caused by enlargement of alveoli

Epistaxis

Nosebleed

Hyperpnea

Increased depth of breathing

Hypopnea

Slow/Shallow breathing

Palliative

Relieving symptoms, but not curing

Percussion

Tapping a surface to determine the density of the underlying structure

Phlegm

Thick mucus excreted in large quantities

Pleural effusion

Escape of fluid into the pleural cavity

Pneumonia

Acute inflammation and infection of the alveoli

Purulent

Containing pus

Stridor

Strained shrill heard during inspiration due to an airway obstruction

Distichiasis

Double row of eyelashes causing irritation to the conjunctiva

Ectropion

Turning outward of the eyelid

Entropion

Turning inward of the eyelid

Enucleation

Removal of the eyball

Follicular ophthalmitis

Hypertrophy and prolapse of the nictitating membrane. "Cherry eye"

Glaucoma

Increased intraocular pressure resulting in damage to the eye

Nystagmus

Rhythmic, rapid, back and forth movement of the eyes

Proptosis

Forward displacement of the eye from its orbit

Cerumen (commonly called ear wax)

Waxy substance secreted by the sebaceous glands in the auditory canal.

Ablation

Separation, detachment, or removal by cutting. most often associated with removal of the external ear canal in cases of neoplasia or chronic otitis.

Aural hematoma

Mass or collection of blood in the ear flap.

Vertigo

Sense of dizziness.

Aneurysm

Sac formed by weakening of a blood vessel. Can lead to hemorrhage and stroke.

Arrythmia

Abnormal heart rhythm

Cardiac tamponade

Compression of the heart due to fluid or blood in the pericardial sac.

Congenital heart disease

Abnormalities of the heart at birth.

Capillary refill time

The time it takes for mm to return to a normal pink color after applying finger pressure.

Defibrillation

Use of electrical shock to restore normal hearth rhythm.

Echocardiogram

High-frequency sound waves and echoes that produce an image of the heart.

Embolish

Blockage of a vessel by a clot or foreign material.

Embolus

A detached, moving clot

Fibrillation

Rapid, random, and irregular contractions of the heart.

Flutter

Rapid but regular contractions of the atria and ventricles.

Hypertension

Increased bp

Hypotension

Decreased bp

Hypoxia

Decreased oxygen to tissues

Infarcation

Area of dead tissue

Ischemia

Lack of blood flow to tissues

Murmur

An extra heart sound

Occlusion

Blockage; obstruction or closure of body passage

Patent

Open; unobstructed. Term can be used to describe vessels and catheters.

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

Condition in which the small duct between the aurta and pulmonary artery, which normally closes after bird, remains open.

Perfusion

Passage of fluid through the blood vessels of a specific organ; blood flow through the tissue

Pericardial effusion

Escape of fluid into the pericardial sac leading to cardiac tamponade.

Premature ventricular contraction

Ventricles are triggered to contract by the Purkinje fibers rather than the SA node.

Shock

Inadequate tissue perfusion. Blood pools in the capillaries to increase the blood volume of the patient, which then decreases its flow to vital organs.

Sphygmomanometer

Instrument that measures arterial blood pressure.

Thrombus

Stationary clot attache to the wall of a vessel.

Agglutination

Clumping of RBCs; technically this is the joining of antibodies and antigens.

Rouleaux

Stacking of RBCs; this is due to a "sticky" surface on the cells from high levels of antibodies.

Coagulation

Blood clotting

Exsanguination

Extensive blood loss due to internal or external hemorrhage.

Macrophages

Monocytes that migrate from teh blood to the tissue; large phagocytes. Exist in liver, spleen, and bone marrow.

Plasma vs. Serum

Plasma - Fluid portion of anticoagulated or circulating blood




Serum - Fluid portion of coagulated blood.

Hematocrit

The percentage of RBC in a volume of blood. (PCV)

Icterus

Yellowish coloration of the plasma. Caused by increased bilirubin.

Leukemia

Increase in cancerous WBCs.

Lipemia

Fat in the blood. Term is most often used to describe a white plasma color.

Interstitial Fluid

Fluid in the spaces between cells; extracellular fluid in tissues.

Anaphylaxis

Exaggerated hypersensitivity to a foreign substance.

Autoimmune disease

Disease in which the body makes antibodies against its own good cells and tissues.

Edema

Excess fluid (interstitial fluid) in tissues.

Immunosuppression

Impaired immune response; also known as immunocompromised

Lymphoma

Malignant tumor of lymphoid tissue

Toxin

A poison

Zoonotic

Disease capable of being transmitted from animals to humans

Sebum

Oily substance secreted by sebaceous glands

Ungulates

Hooved animals

Abrasion

Wound caused by scraping of teh skin or mucous membranes

Abscess

Localized collection of pus

Alopecia

Absence of hair in areas where it normally grows

Atopy

Hypersensitivity reaction characterized by pruritus and dermatitis.

Contusion

A bruise; injury to tissue without breaking the skin. Characterized by pain, swelling, and tenderness due to broken blood vessels.

Culture

Procedure used to grow microbes in certain types of media

Cyst

Thick-walled sac containing fluid or semisolid material

Debridement

Removal of contaminated tissue or foreign material to expose healthy tissue.

Degloving

Injury in which is separated from its underlying structures. Often HBC.

Ecchymosis

Bluish-black mark on the skin.

Erythema

Widespread redness on the skin. Caused by congestion of capillary bed due to skin injury or infection.

Eczema

Generalized term for any superficial inflammation characterized by erythema, pruritus, and oozing blisters which form scabs.

Fissure

Deep crack in the skin

Fistula

Abnormal tube-like passageway that can occur anywhere on the body.

Hidrosis

Sweating

Laceration

Wound caused by tearing.

Lance

To cut or incise with a sharp instrument

Lesion

Abnormal change in tissue. The changes can be pathological or due to trauma.

Melanoma

Malignant tumor of the skin

Nodule

A small, rounded mass

Papilloma

Benign epithelial growth found on the skin or mucous membranes. Skin tag

Petechia/petechiae

Small, pinpoint hemorrhages

Pruritus

Itching

Purpura

Condition of hemorrhaging into the skin creating a bruise

Purulent

Containing pus.

Trichobezoar

Hairball

Urticaria

Red, raised patches on the skin commonly called hives

Wheal

Localized area of swelling that itches

Voiding

Emptying or urine from the bladder.

Azotemia/Urenia

Increase in non-protein nitrogenous wastes in blood.

Calculus

Another name for a stone.

Diuresis

Increased excretion of urine

Enuresis

Inability to control excretion

Perineal urethrostomy

New opening in the area between the anus and scrotum.

Pollakiuria

Frequent urination

Stranguria

Straining to urinate; slow or painful urination

Castration

Removal of gonads (sex organs)

Cryptorchism/cryptorchidism

When one or both testicles fail to descend into the scrotum.

Neuter

Removal of gonads.

Meconium

First feces of a newborn

Neonate

Newborn

Parturition

Act of birthing