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19 Cards in this Set

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Gunpowder history

introduced to Europe in 13th from china


made of 15% charcoal, 10% sulphur, 75% potassium nitrate


Rapid combustion in compressed chamber, not impact sensitive


Smokey until late 19th C.

Early Modern guns?

Smooth bore, not great aim, good for spray shots, muzzle loaded, could be loaded with on large lead ball or multiple smaller ones

Rifling

in 1500s created grooves in barrel to put a spin on bullets and give better aim

Ball shots

all gunpowder weapons used lead ballshots until 1850s/60s


could be made at home because doesn't have a high melting temp


Ignition

Earliest guns (1300s) had hot wire shoved into a hole in barrel



Matchlocks in 1400s - touch a fuse to powder sitting in a pan

Wheel lock

made in 1500s


crank a handle, wind up spring, pull trigger, which rotates against iron pyrite chunk to creak spark.

Flint lock

made in early 1600s


priming powder in a pan, frizzen covers pan, trigger throws arm with flint to strike frizzen and creates spark, ignites powder in pan

Gun flints

made by flint knapper (flint is very hard sedimentary rock) have a distinct squarish shape

Caplock guns/percussion caps?

discovered in early 19th C that mercury fulminate explodes with struck sharply, put in little brass caps


popular towards 1830s


place cap over chamber and drop hammer on it, bam. No need for powder, used lead ball with this

Breech loading guns

Don't load from muzzle, load a barrel, replaces muzzle loading guns by 1880s


However First Nations still liked the Flint lock guns

Cartridges?

1850-60s


combined bullet with powder, primer in one item


insert in barrel

Pinfire cartridge

1850s-1880s


early single shot cartridge


had pin in the side of cartridge

Rimfire cartridge

invented 1857


had mercury fulminate primer loose inside base, then powder, then bullet


Hammer hits the rear of the rim of bullet and ignites primer

Centrefire cartridge

made 1870s


has separate little primer built into centre, firing pin hits this to ignite

Calibre

the size of the cartridge


diameter of the bore of the bullet in hundredths of an inch

Smokeless gunpowder

made end of 19th C


has nitro-cellulose additive


more explosive

Shotshells

for shot gun


hold pellets, form of centrefire cartridge


sizes by guage (larger the gauge number, the smaller it is)

Wheel lock (invented 1500s)

Flintlock (invented 1600s)