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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
biology
the study of life
5 common functions of all living things
1. responsiveness
2. growth
3. reproduction
4. movement
5. metabolism
responsiveness
organisms respond to changes in their environment
irritability
organisms respond to changes in their immediate environment (moving hand away from hot stove)
adaptability
the capacity for organisms to make longer-term changes as they adjust to their environment (animal grows heavier coat of fur as winter approaches)
growth
over a lifetime, organisms increase in size through the growth of cells
differentiation
in multicellular organisms, cells become specialized to perform particular functions
reproduction
organisms reproduce, creating subsequent generations of similar organisms
movement
organisms are capable of producing movement, which may be internal (transporting food, blood, etc. within the body) or external (moving through the environment)
metabolism
all of the chemical operations under way in the body that provide the required energy for responsiveness, growth, movement, and reproduction
respiration
the absorption, transport and use of oxygen by cells
excretion
the elimination od unneeded or harmful waste products generated by metabolic processes
digestion
process in which complex foods are broken down into siimpler components that can be transported and absorbed quickly
anatomy
the study of internal and external STRUCTURE and the physical relationships between body parts
physiology
how living organisms perform their vital FUNCTIONs
gross anatomy
a.k.a. macroscopic anatomy
study of features visible to the unaided eye. Three ways to approach gross anatomy are:
1. surface anatomy
2. regional anatomy, and
3. systemic anatomy
surface anatomy
refers to the study of general form and superficial markings
regional anatomy
considers all of the superficial and internal and internal features in a specific region of the body, such as the head, neck, or trunk
systemic anatomy
considers the structure of major organ systems, which are groups of organs that function in a coordinated manner, i.e. the cardiovascular system
microscopic anatomy
concerns structures that cannot be seen without magnification. Microscopic anatomy can be subdivided into two specialties : cytology and histology.
cytology
analyzes the internal structure of individual cells
histology
takes a broader perspective and studies tissues, groups of specialized cells and cell products that work together to perform specific functions.
organs
Combined tissues, such as the heart, kidney, liver and brain. Many organs can be examined without a microscope, so at the organ level, we cross the boundary into gross anatomy.
cell physiology
the study of the functions of living cells
special physiology
the study of the physiology of specific organs- for example, cardia physiology (heart function)
systemic physiology
considers all aspects of the function of specific organ systems, such as respiratory physiology
pathological physiology
study of the effects of diseases on organ or system functions
Levels of organization prgress from molecules to a complete organism
1. chemical, or molecular. level
2. cellular level
3. tissue level
4. organ level
5, organ system level
6. organism lelvel
chemical (or molecular) level
atoms, the smallest units of matter, combine to form molecules with complex shapes, which determine the function.
cellular level
different molecules can interact to form larger structures, each type of which has a specific function in a cell. Cells, the smallest living units in the body, make up the cellular level of organization
tissue level
a tissue is composed of similar cells working together to perform a specific function
organ level
an organ consists of two or more tissues together to perform a specific function
organ system level
organs interact in an organ system to perform a specific function