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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the study of life
5 common functions of all living things
1. responsiveness
2. growth
3. reproduction
4. movement
5. metabolism
organisms respond to changes in their environment
organisms respond to changes in their immediate environment (moving hand away from hot stove)
the capacity for organisms to make longer-term changes as they adjust to their environment (animal grows heavier coat of fur as winter approaches)
over a lifetime, organisms increase in size through the growth of cells
in multicellular organisms, cells become specialized to perform particular functions
organisms reproduce, creating subsequent generations of similar organisms
organisms are capable of producing movement, which may be internal (transporting food, blood, etc. within the body) or external (moving through the environment)
all of the chemical operations under way in the body that provide the required energy for responsiveness, growth, movement, and reproduction
the absorption, transport and use of oxygen by cells
the elimination od unneeded or harmful waste products generated by metabolic processes
process in which complex foods are broken down into siimpler components that can be transported and absorbed quickly
the study of internal and external STRUCTURE and the physical relationships between body parts
how living organisms perform their vital FUNCTIONs
gross anatomy
a.k.a. macroscopic anatomy
study of features visible to the unaided eye. Three ways to approach gross anatomy are:
1. surface anatomy
2. regional anatomy, and
3. systemic anatomy
surface anatomy
refers to the study of general form and superficial markings
regional anatomy
considers all of the superficial and internal and internal features in a specific region of the body, such as the head, neck, or trunk
systemic anatomy
considers the structure of major organ systems, which are groups of organs that function in a coordinated manner, i.e. the cardiovascular system
microscopic anatomy
concerns structures that cannot be seen without magnification. Microscopic anatomy can be subdivided into two specialties : cytology and histology.
analyzes the internal structure of individual cells
takes a broader perspective and studies tissues, groups of specialized cells and cell products that work together to perform specific functions.
Combined tissues, such as the heart, kidney, liver and brain. Many organs can be examined without a microscope, so at the organ level, we cross the boundary into gross anatomy.
cell physiology
the study of the functions of living cells
special physiology
the study of the physiology of specific organs- for example, cardia physiology (heart function)
systemic physiology
considers all aspects of the function of specific organ systems, such as respiratory physiology
pathological physiology
study of the effects of diseases on organ or system functions
Levels of organization prgress from molecules to a complete organism
1. chemical, or molecular. level
2. cellular level
3. tissue level
4. organ level
5, organ system level
6. organism lelvel
chemical (or molecular) level
atoms, the smallest units of matter, combine to form molecules with complex shapes, which determine the function.
cellular level
different molecules can interact to form larger structures, each type of which has a specific function in a cell. Cells, the smallest living units in the body, make up the cellular level of organization
tissue level
a tissue is composed of similar cells working together to perform a specific function
organ level
an organ consists of two or more tissues together to perform a specific function
organ system level
organs interact in an organ system to perform a specific function