Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
A mental image or best example of a category
A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem
A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently
A sudden and often novel realisation of the solution to a problem
A tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore distort contradictory evidence
Confirmation Bias
The inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set
A tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
Mental Set
The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual function
Functional Fixedness
Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent or match particular prototypes
Representativeness Heuristic
Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory
Availability Heuristic
The tendency to be more confident than correct - to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgements
Clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
Belief Perseverance
An effortless, immediate automatic feeling or thought
The way an issue is posed
Our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
In language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
In a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with an understand others
In a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
The set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language
The rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
Beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
Babbling Stage
The stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words
One-Word Stage
Beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements
Two-Word Stage
Early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram - "go car" - using mostly nouns and verbs
Telagraphic Speech
Impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding)
Controls language expression - an area of the frontal lobe usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
Broca's Area
Controls language reception; usually in the left temporal lobe
Wernicke's Area
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
Linguistic Determinism