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30 Cards in this Set

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The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
Cognition
A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
Concept
A mental image or best example of a category
Prototype
A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem
Algorithm
A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently
Heuristic
A sudden and often novel realisation of the solution to a problem
Insight
A tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore distort contradictory evidence
Confirmation Bias
The inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set
Fixation
A tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
Mental Set
The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual function
Functional Fixedness
Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent or match particular prototypes
Representativeness Heuristic
Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory
Availability Heuristic
The tendency to be more confident than correct - to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgements
Overconfidence
Clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
Belief Perseverance
An effortless, immediate automatic feeling or thought
Intuition
The way an issue is posed
Framing
Our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
Language
In language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
Phoneme
In a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with an understand others
Morpheme
In a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
Grammar
The set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language
Semantics
The rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
Syntax
Beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
Babbling Stage
The stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words
One-Word Stage
Beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements
Two-Word Stage
Early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram - "go car" - using mostly nouns and verbs
Telagraphic Speech
Impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding)
Aphasia
Controls language expression - an area of the frontal lobe usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
Broca's Area
Controls language reception; usually in the left temporal lobe
Wernicke's Area
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
Linguistic Determinism